LaBaron died in a Utah State Prison in See False Prophecy. Church of the Plains Indians: Native American spirituality , sweat lodge. Church of the Trinity, A. Crucifixion, Entombment, Resurrection and Ascension he imparted his Consciousness into the psyche of all. Publishes Newsletter for The Americas. Germain, channeling , guided meditation.
Publishes Cosmic Channelling newsletter. They believe Garcia's guitar is a channel for God. Currently led by Elizabeth Clare Prophet. Stone's restoration movement of the early 19th century, which was designed to promote unity among Protestants. Many but not all Churches of Christ today, however, differ from traditional Protestant doctrine in two key areas.
Some also believe that today's Churches of Christ are the only true churches on earth and that they can literally trace their history to the first century church in Jerusalem. Circle Network News Mt. Horeb, WI: Paganism , shamanism , Wicca , goddess worship. Publishes the Circle Network News newsletter. Circle of Light, Inc. Clairvoyance: The supposed paranormal ability to "see" psychic information, including historical or future events or other phenomena, that cannot be discerned naturally through the five material senses.
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See ESP , Divination. Cleage, Albert B. Cognitive Dissonance: A mental, emotional, or psychological state which results from attempting to hold two totally incompatible beliefs or opposing attitudes at the same time. See Double Bind. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church. The doctrines of the two groups eventually became radically different. The Community of Christ church has a slightly different version of the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants, and they reject the Pearl of Great Price as scripture.
In recent years the church has experienced divisions, with more conservative Restoration Branches becoming independent. The current leader and prophet of the movement, Grant McMurray, was the first exception to this practice. Publishes The Beamer newsletter. Concerned Christians, Monte Kim Miller, Denver, CO: Ironically, begun in the early s as a Christian ministry to expose cults and false teaching, Miller's organization began to take on cult-like characteristics in later years. Becoming increasingly controversial and bizarre, Miller's group drew national media attention in when over 50 followers fled the Denver area and disappeared after Miller predicted the Apocalypse was to begin and that Denver was to be destroyed by an earthquake on October Miller, who claims to be one of the two end-time prophets mentioned in the Revelation 11, published Report from Concerned Christians and Take Heed Update.
Produced Our Foundation radio program. He is said to have collected, edited and written commentaries on four ancient manuscripts including the I Ching. Doctrines include ancestor worship, devotion to family elders, and right conduct based on the inherent goodness of man. Publishes The Herald magazine. Publishes The Restoration Message newsletter.
Publishes the Gentle Place and Quiet Space magazine. Contemplations, Inc. Life is crystalized light. Jesus is only part human and part God. Holy Spirit empowered Jesus to live sinless life and can do the same for any person. Salvation by works. Publishes Cornerstone. Jeffs, Sandy, Utah: Mormon Fundamentalist splinter group of between eight and twelve thousand members. The group has a strong presence in Hilldale, Utah, and Colorado City, Arizona once known as Short Creek , which was the site of a government effort to prosecute polygamists in Allred was murdered in by members of a rival Mormon Fundamentalist sect.
Cosmerism: Mixture of Christianity and Buddhism , but embraces all religions as having truth. Cosmic Christ: See Christ. Teaches that man is still in heaven with God and this life is a dream. Coven: A group two or more people ideally thirteen practicing witchcraft see Wicca or occult arts. Also called a clan. Covey, Stephen: Mormon author with New Age affinities. Author of the best-selling, 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, and several sequels. Creation Calendar, Verlis W. Creme, Benjamin: See Tara Center. Crowley, Aleister: An English magician and Occultist. Crystallomancy: Divination or fortune telling by gazing into a crystal rock or crystal ball.
Crystals: Many though not all New Agers believe that gems especially Crystals possess mystical, esoteric , spiritual powers to bring the bearer health, wealth and good fortune. Cult: See the Definitions section in the introduction. According to Kisser, between and CAN was the victim of approximately 50 lawsuits directly or indirectly sponsored by members of the Church of Scientology , an organization considered by CAN to be a dangerous cult.
Kisser warns that anyone now contacting CAN should be aware that they are very likely talking with Scientologists. A system that requires members to disclose to their leaders or superiors the personal thoughts, attitudes, and actions that do not conform to the group's ideals. This practice diminishes healthy personal boundaries and privacy, and may facilitate additional abuses. Publishes Restoration Voice, The Vision. Dalai Lama: The spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism. Dallas Fellowship, Inc.
Publishes The Circle newsletter. In , over a decade after his death, the Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith a Vatican commission denounced de Mello's writings. They warned of false teachings in his works, including a denial of objective morality and the claim that all religion, including Christianity, are obstacles to truth. Ron Hubbard , founder of the Church of Scientology. An environment of blame and guilt based on an impossible ideal of human behavior or perfection. This shame-based culture punishes failure and can even subtly train members to punish themselves for their inability to live up to the group's ideals or standards.
See Brainwashing. Demons: Fallen angels under the direction of Satan who seek to destroy God's purpose and people. Demons are invisible, spiritual beings Ephesians , are organized and have supernatural power and knowledge Matthew , Revelation , can possess humans and animals, Luke , Mark , and can inspire false doctrine 1 Timothy Deprogramming: A coercive attempt to dissuade an individual of religious or ideological convictions believed to be harmful, through a concentrated usually two to three days counseling procedure designed to produce a sudden "snapping out.
Often presented as an antidote for brainwashing or mind control , some deprogrammers rationalized the unethical use of force and coercion to rescue victims by illegally holding them against their will abduction or "snatching" in a process known as "involuntary" deprogramming. Watchman Fellowship does not support or condone such illegal and unethical behavior. Not to be confused with Exit Counseling. Devil: See Satan. Dianetics: Bestselling "bible" of the Church of Scientology. Disfellowshipping: As practiced by the LDS and many other groups, this is a level of church discipline involving a probationary period of restricted privileges, but retaining church membership.
As practiced by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society , it is an alternate term for "excommunication," being completely cut off from Jehovah's organization; see Shunning. The organization's dogma determines whether or not other groups or individuals have the right to exist. All alternative belief systems or organizations are considered illegitimate. In extreme cases this mindset can promote violence or murder. Divali: Hindu philosophy of Enlightenment. Most often props are involved such as the hand palm reading , the stars astrology , cards Tarot , or random symbols I Ching.
The ideas and doctrines of the leader and organization overrule the personal experiences, conscience, and integrity of the individual. Publishes the Theologia 21 newsletter. The Door: See Potter's House. Double Bind: A mental or psychological dilemma caused when a person receives from a single leader or teacher conflicting messages or "truths" resulting in no appropriate response or answer. See Cognitive Dissonance. Dowsing: Form of divination using a forked rod, a bent wire, or a pendulum. Used to locate people, objects, or substances, and to diagnose illnesses.
They were the keepers of oral history and law, and officiates of pagan , occult religious practices. See Halloween. A similar doctrine called the Plural Covenant theory emphasizes other covenants in addition to these two major systems. Dualism: An understanding of reality as existing in two opposite extremes. Ethical dualism posits a conflict between universal good and an equal and opposite force of universal evil e. Dungeons and Dragons: Occult , fantasy role playing game , allegedly uses demonic names and spells found in occult literature.
Some parents have charged that children committed suicide under the influence of the game. Dyer, Wayne: Prominent New Age writer and spokesman focusing on business applications, personal transformation and motivational speaking. Also promotes holistic health , and Buddhism. Dynamic Monarchianism: A late second-century heresy denying the Trinity, put forth by Theodotue of Byzantium and later adoped in modified forms by Paul of Samosata, Noetus and Prazeas. An active member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , Eadie claims to have died, gone to heaven, and returned to her body see near-death experiences.
Her books contain a combination of New Age and Mormon beliefs. Earth Church of Amargi, St. Louis, MO: Paganism , ritual magic , witchcraft see Wicca , moon festivals, Kabbalah , goddess worship. Earthmother Therapy Center: Astrology , aura reading, chakra balancing, channeling , homeopathy , iridology , numerology , palmistry , past life regression , reflexology.
Eckankar, Paul Twitchell: Mixture of pantheism and eastern mysticism , astral projection , reincarnation. Emmanuel, J. Publishes The Gap newsletter. Emerald Circle: Paganism , know the Divine within, be part of Gaia. Enneagram: Occult symbol. A circle with its circumference divided by nine points; has connections with the "Tree of Life" in Kabbalah , astrology , or divination.
Erhard, Warner: See est. Esoteric: Hidden or deeper knowledge held by an elite few. See Gnosticism , Occult. ESPress, Inc. See National Spiritual Science Center. Essene Light Center, Mary L. Teaches the world has no objective meaning, enlightenment, and to live moment to moment with no regard for the future. New Age themes. In the midst of mounting troubles, Erhard decided to leave the United States.
Est was discontinued and replaced by The Forum. Evangelical Christianity: Evangelical from the Greek euangelion, good news or gospel generally means a focus on the essentials of Christianity. The term can be used to describe all Christians or churches that hold to or give heavy emphasis to specific conservative Protestant beliefs. In Germany, "Evangelical" is basically synonymous with "Lutheran. More specifically the term has come to be closely identified with a widespread trans-denominational shift towards more conservative Christian doctrine that developed after World War II.
See Fundamental Christianity. It means to become a God, exactly like God the Father and Jesus Christ, and to produce and rule over one's offspring throughout eternity. Exit Counseling: Thought Reform Consulting A non-coercive technique in contrast to deprogramming designed to help rescue members of religions or cults that are considered false, harmful, or dangerous.
The approach stresses true personal and religious freedom in the context of providing additional information and full disclosure, which facilitates more informed decision-making. Family counseling and intervention techniques may also be incorporated. Extrasensory Perception ESP : Alleged knowledge of an experience or a response to an external event apart from the five senses. This experience can take place either in a wakeful or dream state. Publishes The Faith Word magazine. False Prophecy: Generally, any teaching by a prophet that is not true. Familiar Spirit: A spirit that can allegedly communicate with humans, often through possessing the body of a medium , channeler , or psychic.
Also, a special type of demon that can impersonate a deceased person during attempts to communicate with the dead see necromancy. Not related to the following entry. Best known for explicit sexual practices in recruiting converts and inner-group life, based on Berg's writings, the MO Letters. Not related to previous entry. Critics have expressed concern over the tremendous amount of time often invested in the games. More disturbing are reports that the games often emphasize rape, violence, spells, magic and other occult themes.
Some parents have also charged that their children committed suicide while under the influence of FRP. Farrakhan, Louis: Leader in the Nation of Islam. New Age , automatic writing , ascended beings. Fellowship of Isis: Paganism. Egyptian gods and goddess worship. Feminism: See Radical Feminism. Feng Shui: A religious "science" for the balancing of Yin and Yang in the environment, discovered or originated by farmers some 3, years ago and developed within Taoism.
Feng Shui teaches that there is an energy called Qi or, Chi flowing throughout the universe, and in this world through lines, sometimes called channels or meridians, to which one must be properly aligned for optimal health, fortune, and quality of life. The position and alignment of structures and objects in one's environment affects the flow of this energy and one's own ability to harmonize with nature. Practitioners therefore arrange household and office furniture, design rooms and even whole buildings, their grounds and gardens, etc. They thus hope to improve the balance of nature around them, not only for their own benefit, but for the benefit everyone in the area.
First Temple of the Craft of W. See also Unarius Education Foundation. Publishes the Zen Notes newsletter. Flirty Fishing, Ffing : Allegedly discontinued practice of using sex to entice converts into The Family. Publishes the Update newsletter.
Followers of Christ Church, Walter T. White, Oregon City, OR: Practices shunning , exhibits legalism , and holds to a strict faith-healing doctrine. Doctors and hospitals are not allowed. State medical examiner claims as many as 25 children have died in the last two decades from complications from otherwise common medical problems. Form Criticism: A method of literary criticism used by many scholars in the interpretation of the Bible. It identifies the literary forms of specific parts of the biblical writings, such as the different types of psalms thanksgiving, lament, etc.
By noting common features in passages of the same form, various conclusions are drawn about how to interpret those passages. In liberal Christianity , which pioneered this method, many of the forms are assumed to be legendary or mythical especially those involving the supernatural. Some evangelical scholars think form criticism can be useful if such liberal assumptions are avoided, while other evangelicals reject form criticism outright. See also Redaction criticism. Fortunetelling: A form of divination in which a person attempts to predict the future using alleged paranormal powers.
The Forum: New Age , personal transformation seminar; see est. See also Process Church of the Final Judgement. Publishes the Divine Truth Commentary newsletter. All religious leaders, including Jesus, Mohammad and Buddha were sent by God. Publishes A Call To Wisdom newsletter. Fox, Kate and Margarett: See Spiritualism. Fox, Matthew: Dominican Catholic priest silenced by the Vatican for teaching blatant New Age theology which he calls "creation-centered spirituality".
Free Bible Students: A small Bible Students splinter group currently consisting of only four congregations and approximately 27 home groups. Freemasonry: A fraternal order revived in the early 18th century in England, loosely based on associations or guilds of stone cutters "operative" masons. Freemasonry "speculative" masons sought to give philosophical, moral, or spiritual meaning to the lodge, tools, and oaths of the stone cutters. Most modern adherents maintain that the organization is not a religion but a club or fraternity promoting high moral values and good works.
They believe, therefore, that Freemasonry is compatible with and supplements Christianity and other religions. Critics counter that Freemasonry involves secret blood oaths or curses, and that the writings of respected early leaders Albert Mackey, Albert Pike, etc. Despite Freemasonry's promotion and funding of a number of worthwhile, philanthropic endeavors free Shriner children hospitals, nursing homes, etc. Fundamentalist Christianity: Generally a reference to conservative Christians who believe five "fundamentals" of Christianity : the inerrancy of Scripture, the virgin birth of Christ, the substitutionary atonement of Christ, the bodily resurrection of Christ, and the historicity of biblical miracles.
More specifically, the term is identified with the conservative reaction, especially in America, to liberal Christianity in the early 20th century. Core beliefs of the movement are virtually identical with evangelical Christianity. Some fundamentalists, however, later distinguished themselves from evangelicals or neo-evangelicals whom they saw as too compromising and ecumenical. More recently some have given a new, negative meaning to the term "fundamentalist" using it as a synonym for narrow-minded, bigoted, anti-intellectual or divisive Christians.
Publishes The Appointed Time newsletter. Gaia: Originally the Greek goddess of earth. Many see the earth as one large living organism made of numerous parts, much as the human body is one living organism with various parts. Publishes The Gandhi Message quarterly. Pyramid powers. Turgeon once claimed to be the prophet Elijah. He and another member, Blaine Alan Applin, were charged with first-degree murder in following the shooting death of former member Daniel Jess. Earlier that year a SWAT team served a warrant on the group's five-acre compound located 60 miles north of San Diego and recovered weapons and other stolen property.
Gateway To Light, Lloyd G. Gawain, Shakti: New Age author who popularized Buddhism through creative visualization meditation techniques. Ghosts: Non-physical entities or spirit beings, often believed to be the spirits of the dead. See Spiritualism , Demon , Necromancy , Occult. Teaches a form of Armstrongism.
Globalism: When used in a religious sense, this term most often means to lose all national identity. Mankind must see itself as one world family, without the need for distinctions between religions. All religions become true or the distinctive doctrines of the various religions must be disregarded in an attempt to achieve the new Global Family idea. Publishes the Sunspot magazine. Gnosticism: From the Greek word gnosis knowledge. Salvation comes through secret knowledge. A diverse belief influenced by Greek philosophy and similar to forms of pantheism , Gnosticism generally taught that matter was evil and spirit was good.
Forms of gnosticism affected early Christianity. One Gnostic heresy taught that because matter was evil, Jesus could not have come in the flesh. Goat's Head: An occult symbol consisting of an upside-down five-pointed star. See Baphomet. Goddess: New Age , occult , neo-paganism. A term used in various though related senses to affirm a feminine nature or aspect of the divine. Three beliefs are common: revering "Mother Nature," or the Earth, as divine see Gaia ; worshiping a female deity often linked to primitive pagan religions, as in Wicca ; and the search by some women for the "divine spark" of the "goddess within.
Publishes Sacred Cycles newsletter. Golden Wheel, W. Good, Joseph: See Hatikva Ministries. The first four books of the New Testament, which consist of accounts of Jesus' ministry, death, and resurrection Matthew, Mark, Luke and John , are also called the Gospels. Most false gospels teach a form of either salvation by works or universalism.
Great Invocation: A New Age prayer written in by Alice Bailey see Arcane School and circulated by various New Age groups that believe widespread recitiation may help initiate a new utopia on earth. Publishes The Covenstead newsletter. Great White Brotherhood: New Age belief in a group of spirit beings or reincarnated teachers, also called Ascended Masters , existing on a non-physical higher plane. Stevens, Jr. Allegedly practices mind control and shepherding. Guided Imagery: Another term for Visualization.
Guideposts: Magazine founded by Norman Vincent Peale. Gurdjieff, George I. Considered by some to have been the greatest mystical teacher of all times. However, in its modern American form it is a holiday based on pagan , occult , Celtic beliefs and Druid rituals. Believed to be a religious high or holy day by those involved in witchcraft see Wicca and Satanism.
Celebrated on October 31st, children are encouraged to wear costumes and solicit candy door-to-door Trick-or-Treat. Halpern, Steve: Prominent New Age music composer and lecturer. Harmonic Convergence: A New Age , social, environmental and personal transformational event formulated by Jose Arguelles, based on alleged Mayan prophecies and astrological conjecture. Other significant dates were 31 December and a culmination in Hatha Yoga: See " Yoga. Publishes The Pathfinder magazine. Hay, Louise: New Age , metaphysical counselor and author. Practices Kundalini Yoga , vegetarianism, and overcoming painful thoughts to move toward enlightenment.
Publishes the Harbin magazine. Publishes the Heart Dance magazine. Applewhite a. Do and 38 other members committed suicide in March of , believing that by leaving their bodies behind they could join Nettles a. Ti and other "older members" from "the next level above human" on a UFO supposedly hidden behind the Hale-Bopp comet. Heaven's Magic: Another name for the followers of David Berg, founder of The Family Children of God ; produces multi-color children's posters and music.
Heresy: Literally, a theological dissension or division arising from diversity of opinions and aims. The term is usually reserved to refer to false teachings considered so serious that belief in them excludes the followers from the true faith and salvation; in other words, a belief viewed as fatal to the gospel. Religious groups founded on the basis of heresy are known as cults. Heretic: A person who causes a division by teaching heresy.
Publishes Windwatch newspaper. Publishes Himalayan Institute Quarterly. Hinduism: The major world religion that originated from the ancient religions of India, which originally embraced polytheism. As a more unified world religion, Hinduism teaches pantheism ; the ancient gods especially the triad of Brahma , Vishnu , and Shiva are commonly interpreted as representations of the various aspects of the divine Brahman.
Human beings progress to the ultimate realization of their oneness with Brahman often called Nirvana through reincarnation according to the law of karma. Some of the concepts of Hinduism are incorporated, modified, and expanded upon in the New Age Movement. Twelve followers or close associates have committed suicide or died under unusual circumstances. Many left large sums of money to Hoffman. Some holistic health remedies and assumptions i. Much within this movement, however, is based on pantheistic concepts, New Age visualization , and eastern religious beliefs such as Chinese Taoism Yin and Yang.
Most questionable are holistic practices that have no valid physiological explanation or scientific proof such as applied kinesiology , reflexology and iridology. Blighton: Monastic New Age group that practiced esoteric , mystical religion blending biblical themes with reincarnation and other concepts from Eastern religions and the occult. Blighton, an ex-engineer who was once fined for practicing medicine without a license, began the order in After advancing through the order, men reached the status of Brown Brother of the Holy Light, while women might become an Immaculate Sister of Mary for Missionary Training.
After the death of Blighton, the group underwent radical changes. The majority of followers converted to Eastern Orthodoxy and the order eventually was transformed into Christ the Savior Brotherhood, a sect of Eastern Orthodoxy. Several competing groups later formed claiming to preserve Blighton's original purpose and message. Publishes Purarnave periodical. Homeopathy: Pseudo-medical holistic health techniques developed by Samuel Hahneman whereby minute doses of natural elements are said to cure diseases. Publishes the Homeword newspaper.
Horoscope: See Astrology.
Publishes Shiloh's Messenger of Wisdom. House of Divine Bread, J. House of Yahweh, Yisrayl a. Sabbatarianism , Sacred Name , British Israelism , only true church. Houston, Jean: Prominent New Age spokesperson and author of many books on education in the American school system. Hubbard, L. Ron: Late founder of the Church of Scientology. Hunger Project: Claims to help poverty-stricken people using visualization to rid the world of hunger. See est. Hypnosis: Technique inducing an altered state of consciousness or trance by verbal or non-verbal stimuli.
Participants experience reduced ability for critical thinking and are generally open to external suggestion. See Mesmerism. I Ching: Yi King or The Book of Changes Ancient Chinese method of divination , predicting the future using random casting of the stalks of the yarrow plant or three-lined diagrams Trigams representing, among other things, Yin and Yang.
Identity Movement: See Christian Identity movement. Iglesia Ni Cristo, Felix Manalo: Rejects the Trinity ; teaches salvation by works , salvation found only in this group. Originally promoted free thought and democratic political theories. Now believed by many to be an anti-democratic, elitist, conspiracy for one-world-government. Imagery: Alternative term for Visualization.
Publishes Subconsciously Speaking newsletter. Inner Space Center: See Prosperos. Inner Technologies, Richard Daab, Fairfax, CA: New Age , yoga , astral projection , meditation , reaching Samadhi state of enlightenment , channeling , crystals , visualization. Insight magazine, Washington, D. Institute for Advanced Perception, Harold S. Taught the world would end in Publishes the Lunar Letter. See Dual Covenant. Founded in with 55, members worldwide.
Current president Willis Harman. Former members and critics allege mind control. Practices shepherding , teaches baptismal regeneration , and claims to be the only true church. Publishes Upside Down magazine. Aggressively recruits on college and university campuses throughout America and internationally.
Selkirk’s Christianization of the Red River Valley
Publishes Insight. International Society of Divine Love, H. International Society for Krishna Consciousness, A. Publishes Back to Godhead magazine. Investigative Judgment: One of the unique doctrines of the Seventh-day Adventist Church that make the place of that church within evangelical Christianity questionable. First taught in Adventism by Hiram Edson, F.
Hahn, and O. Crosier, it was accepted as "present truth" by those who would later become known as Seventh-day Adventists SDAs after it was confirmed and taught in visions received by Ellen G. The doctrine teaches that in the Holy of Holies in the Heavenly Sanctuary Christ is now conducting an investigation into the lives of all who have ever professed belief in Christ. He is judging all their works, by the standard of God's Law. All those whose lives fail to measure up to the standard of the Law are rejected and condemned as not having true faith.
Those whose lives meet that standard and thus manifest the perfect character and righteousness of Christ are recognized as having true faith, and so their sins are "blotted out. It declares that those who have remained loyal to God shall receive the kingdom. Profile on SDA available. Iridology: Developed by Ignatz Peczeky, a Holistic Health technique which supposedly allows one to diagnose unrelated diseases such as a sprained ankle or weak back by reading the color patterns of the eye's irises.
Some practitioners also claim ability to diagnose emotional or mental problems. Isis Unveiled: See Rosicrucianism. Islam is the second largest world religion, and has recently become the third largest religious body in America with over 6 million adherents.
Manitoba History: Conservative Visions of Christianity and Community in Early Red River, c
The mystical tradition of Sufism includes many Sunnis and some Shi'ites. The Arabic word Islam means "submission to the will of God" and a person who submits is called a Muslim. However, only the Qur'an is considered uncorrupted. Islam rejects the Trinity doctrine, the deity of Christ and His Sonship, claiming that Jesus was only a great prophet. Muhammad is considered to be the greatest prophet, whose coming was allegedly predicted by Christ.
Islam adheres fiercely to monotheism. In addition to good works, salvation is sought though observance of the Five Pillars: reciting "there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger," praying five times per day, fasting, giving alms donations to the poor , and a pilgrimage to Mecca. While many Muslims exhibit tolerance towards other faiths, even today Islamic fundamentalism promotes jihad holy war , against those of other religious and political views.
Jehovah's Witnesses: Official name of the religion that accepts the authority of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. As Wilson notes in her essay on the chapel in the new book, Clarke was drawing on Celtic and pre-Christian images. From a distance, the windows seem like standard Victorian stained glass; up close, you see how outlandish they are.
HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY
She is more construction than saint. Elsewhere, Judas is seen chained to an island for his sins, a fearful, claw-footed, semi-rotten thing. Little of this has anything to do with the typically consoling imagery of modern Christianity. As a Catholic of Irish ancestry, I was already prey to such perfervid mysticism. These luminescent icons, which I saw through closed fingers and the blue smoke of incense, trembling from my grey-short-clad knees, hypnotised by their big eyes and oddly folded robes, as if made from origami, were burned on my memory.
This was a sensate influence — and they suddenly became clear in Ireland, where faith was not remote or rational but tangible and mystical, where blessed virgins stand on street corners venerated by battery-powered candles and holy wells pour out of ancient pagan sites overlooked by graffittied statues. Impossibly attenuated queens in lapidary baroque gowns entwine themselves in writhing tentacular phalluses that end in staring eyeballs. Dead souls, robed in red, rise through amniotic seas like seaweedy embryos. They sought to co-opt Clarke into their seductive Celtic Twilight culture revival, but his work defied categorisation.
Jones, a Catholic convert, was a first world war veteran who suffered from chronic shellshock.
Both men were drawn to the crucifixion and the notion of sacrifice. Jones portrayed himself as a semi-naked soldier, the stigmata blending on his body with his trench scars; Clarke posed similarly stripped for his own crucifixion images in astonishing photographs that evoke the terrible vacuum of a Francis Bacon canvas. Having trained as an artist in Dublin and London, he returned to Ireland to work for the family firm, designing stained glass, illustrating books and advertisements.
But his overreaching imagination soon disdained any sense of restraint. Pete Castle. In Other Words. John Mortimer. Michael B. Mary Queen of Scots. Alison Weir. The Detections of Dr. Sam Johnson. Lillian de la Torre. The Tyrannicide Brief. Geoffrey Robertson. Beside The Fire.
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Whispering Hope - Marina's Story. Marina Gambold. Northamptonshire Folk Tales. Kevan Manwaring. Conor Kostick.
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