McMillan and Hope chapter 2 offer little more, positively, than the idea that it involves research on issues in medical ethics which closely combines philosophical normative, non-empirical analyses with empirical studies involving systematic data collection. Widdershoven and van der Scheer chapter 3 offer more by way of positive characterisations of empirical ethics, combining pragmatism and hermeneutics.
Later chapters consider methodological and substantive issues concerning: individualised mental health care, the impact of implicit models of mental health on decision making in mental health teams, dementia care and the family, advance directives and dementia, coercion in psychiatric care, Prader-Willi syndrome, Ulysses arrangements i.
Essential Philosophy of Psychiatry, Tim Thornton. This book summarises recent analytical research in the philosophy of psychiatry, paying particular attention to the limits of naturalism as a philosophical framework for psychiatry. The first chapter argues that psychiatric diagnosis cannot be made value-free as would be desirable according to certain views of what it would mean for psychiatry to be a science.
Instead the ineradicably evaluative character of diagnosis should be understood and acknowledged for what it is. The second chapter considers the basis of clinical judgement. The form of the argument is similar to chapter 1. The case is made that clinical judgement is not completely codifiable reducible to an algorithm , and that this is not a problem for the objectivity of psychiatry — but only for certain optional and purely philosophical conceptions of what it would be for such judgement to be respectably objective.
Chapter 3 considers the nature of our understanding of psychopathology, and especially the challenges that are placed upon our capacity to understand by cases of severe mental disturbance.
Thornton concludes that phenomenological accounts which try to render psychotic experience comprehensible by bringing it within the fold of intelligible human experience may be misguided, but that an apt phenomenological theorisation of the structure of our contact with reality and of what may amount to the same thing the conditions of intelligibility for speech and action may be essential if we are to understand just what it is that psychosis can threaten and damage. Chapter 5 considers the validity of psychiatric classification.
As in chapter 1, the presence of values is not seen to pose a problem for classification; the argument here turns on the conceptual validity of the hyper-objectivist criteria for classificatory validity that are somemtimes employed by foes and friends of psychiatric classification. The sixth chapter considers the conceptual status of evidence-based medicine in psychiatry. The empirical or conceptual? The connections between the themes of these well-argued and well-written chapters are considered in a final chapter which concludes the book.
A revaluation of the traditional sceptical and apologetical philosophical arguments about the existence and nature of mental illness. The likeness argument…. We do this, the likess argument says, by showing that schizophrenia or ADHD are or are not sufficiently similar to other illnesses to be illnesses themselves. The assumption about the question upon which the likeness argument is based is that it is answerable by evidence as to the nature of the conditions in question which is available to observation.
It assumes that if we observe or investigate conditions such as schizophrenia, alcoholism, ADHD, or bipolar affective disorder for features of illness, then this will decide for us whether or not these are illnesses. It is the argument of this book that this is role that human agency plays in mental illness: it is responsible for categorizing conditions such as illnesses, and thereby making the features of illness such as causality or dysfunction appear.
Metaphors are seen instead as essential contributors to categorisation and description in science, including psychiatry. Essays on historical, metaphilosophical, ethical, psychological, phenomenological and psychotherapeutic themes in the field of mental health. The historical elements on the history of dynamic psychiatry are more successful than the philosophical Meares once again presents Ryle as arguing against the very idea of the inner, rather than against common philosophical ways of understanding it. To use its way of putting things, we could say that a simile operating in the unconscious can be made harmless by being articulated.
And the comparison with psychoanalysis can be developed even further. And this analogy is certainly no coincidence. Matthews stresses, in particular, embodied intentionality and desire, regarding mental illnesses as disturbances of our being-in-the-world. In chapter 5 Daniel Robinson discursively comments on several intersections of ethical, political and clinical issues in psychiatry. In chapter 7 Derek Bolton presents his own attempt to overcome the meaning-causality dualism and thereby to reconicile approaches towards mental illness which present themselves in either hermeneutic or natural-scientific terms.
Rom Harre considers the discursive construction of identity and disturbances of this in mental illness in chapter 8. Gillett considers the ways in which mental disorders of humans — disorders such as anorexia — can be understood once they are situated in relation to the preoccupations and concerns of the patient — e. Katherine Morris presents a Sartrean phenomenology of the body dysmorphic disorder in chapter In particular she views BDD as a disturbance of the lived-body-for-others, in particular, a disturbance which leads to a failure to live the body-for-others, and to a tendency to attempt to think it instead.
Examples of melancholic, manic, and hysterical modes of existence are provided. Markus Heinimaa consider incomprehensibility in chapter In chapter 15 Gerrit Glas considers existential and biological approaches to anxiety. He considers the possibility of reconciling these approaches by viewing existential considerations as relevant once we understand how biologically provided anxiety reactions are taken up in and reshaped by the socio-cultural and ethical and existential context of development of the living human being.
The final chapter by Paolo Rossi considers in careful and fascinating detail the relation between science and magic over history. Documents the ambiguous impacts of technology on the science and practice of psychiatry, the benefits and the costs of the increasing technologisation of the field of mental health. Synopsis based on the Introduction by the editor, further edited by Richard Gipps, November This substantial work considers theoretical part 1 and practical part 2 themes from the early life years of R D Laing.
Perspectives on the schizophrenia diagnosis drawing on phenomenological and analytical philosophy and psychology, introduced by the editors. The second chapter in this edited book provides a service user perspective. Colin King describes the interplay between racial and psychiatric concerns, drawing on his own life, experiences of racism, and the work of Fanon to provide examples of the conflictual construction of identity.
In the third chapter Man Cheung Chung gives an overview of the philosophy of psychiatry literature regarding schizophrenia. The three foci are: conceptual analysis of the basis of diagnostic classification in psychiatry; phenomenological analysis of the nature of schizophrenic experience; cognitive neuroscientific accounts of schizophrenic symptoms.
The authors Louis Sass and Josef Parnas, central proponents of the resurgence today of the relevance of phenomenology to schizophrenia, provide the fourth chapter. What is particularly valuable about this chapter is its clear elucidation of the different forms of phenomenological understanding, both synchronic and diachronic. Synchronically Sass and Parnas elucidate equiprimordial, constitutive and expressive forms of non-causal relationship between aspects of experience.
Diachronically they consider primary, consequential and compensatory causal processes. In chapter 5 Alfred Kraus elaborates on his thesis that schizophrenic delusions especially technical delusions and hallucinations e.
The Sublime Object of Psychiatry Schizophrenia in Clinical and Cultural Theory
Chapter 6, by Osborne Wiggins and Michael Schwartz, complements this with a Husserlian perspective which makes reference to schizophrenic disturbances in the synthetic constitution of experience. At first overwhelmed by the complexity of inadequately automatically synthesised experience, the person with schizophrenia then experiences ultimately unintelligible new syntheses of experience crystallising in delusions and hallucinations which consequently reduce its complexity.
Gillett contrasts the austere and abstract rationality of logic and deduction with the grounded and pragmatic rationality of ongoing discursive practices or language games and human forms of life. Jeffrey Poland provides a much-needed critique of the implicit inductivist and positivist philosophy of science underlying those critiques of the schizophrenia concept popular in the psychological community in the UK today i.
Poland however does not consider other understandings of what unifies cases of schizophrenia — e. Reasoned scepticism towards identifying delusions as beliefs is a theme also of chapter She is an interdisciplinary researcher working at the intersection of cultural theory, literary studies, and philosophy. Her research interests include the study of theoretical and subjective accounts of psychotic experience, narrative identity, and the role of narrative in the medical humanities.
Psychiatry on schizophrenia: clinical pictures of a sublime object; 2. Antipsychiatry: schizophrenic experience and the sublime; 4. Anti-Oedipus and the politics of the schizophrenic sublime; 5. Schizophrenia, modernity, postmodernity; 6. Postmodern schizophrenia; 7. Glamorama, postmodernity and the schizophrenic sublime; Conclusion.
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Birkbeck Medical Humanities Reading Group – 29th November 2018 3pm: Schizophrenia
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