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The Canine Sense of Smell
Pfaffmann C, Bartoshuk LM. Taste loss due to herpes zoster oticus: an update after 19 months. Accessed 01 October Dietary assessment of patients with chemosensory disorders. J Am Diet Assoc. Differential patterns of food appreciation during consumption of a simple food in congenitally anosmic individuals: an explorative study. Seo HS, Hummel T. Effect of olfactory dysfunction on sensory evaluation and preparation of foods. Eating without a nose: olfactory dysfunction and sensory-specific satiety. Making sense of the chemical senses. Multisens Res. Pullum GK. The great Eskimo hoax and other irrelevant essays on the study of language.
Sewards K. Dual separate pathways for sensory and hedonic aspects of taste. Brain Res Bull. Greenwood V. The real reason sweet tastes sweet. BBC Website; Spence C, Youssef J. Olfactory dining: designing for the dominant sense. Flavour submitted. Bloom D.
Revolutionary new fork that adds own flavour to each mouthful is the latest foodie gadget to hit the market. Daily Mail Online; Accessed 05 November Blumenthal H. The big Fat Duck cookbook. London, UK: Bloomsbury; Delwiche JF. Attributes believed to impact flavor: an opinion survey. J Sens Stud. The Viora lid unlocks the aroma of your beverage. Accessed 10 September Anonymous CBS News July 18th.
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A world without the olfactory dimension. Anat Rec. It hurts so good: oral irritation by spices and carbonated drinks and the underlying neural mechanisms. Psychophysical and neurobiological evidence that the oral sensation elicited by carbonated water is of chemogenic origin. The taste of carbonation. Effect of carbonation on brain processing of sweet stimuli in humans. Naturalizing aesthetics: brain areas for aesthetic appraisal across sensory modalities.
Extance, A. Fine flavours: the unsuspected talents of your taste buds. New Scientist ;5th August. Accessed 05 September Marinetti FT, Colombo L. Download references. CS would like to acknowledge helpful comments from Prof. Correspondence to Charles Spence. Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Review Open Access Published: 02 November Just how much of what we taste derives from the sense of smell? Footnote 1 On the prevalence of the claim Below, I include a selection of the claims regarding the importance of smell to what is commonly called taste from the popular psychology press, from peer-reviewed scientific research articles, and from the media, that I have come across in recent years arranged chronologically.
Notes 1. References 1. Google Scholar 2. Google Scholar 3. Google Scholar 5. Google Scholar 9. Google Scholar Article Google Scholar Article PubMed Google Scholar Digs with his paws for a while, snorts, then decides it is a lingering smell no longer worthy of his work. He rises up, glances my way … and then lifts his leg and marks this location for any who might follow. Within each of the cavities are the turbinate bones conchae and the paranasal sinuses.
The turbinate bones form into several scrolls of moveable cartilage and bony tissue that is lined with ciliated epithelial cells. The turbinate bones are a veritable maze of structure, and locating a foreign body hidden in their depths can be an extremely frustrating undertaking — a procedure that almost always requires general anesthesia. The paranasal sinuses are extensions of the nasal cavity and various diseases or tumors may impair their drainage especially of the frontal sinuses. When the dog sniffs, there is forced inspiration and the nostrils are dilated.
The inspired air is warmed and humidified as it passes through the turbinates, and the mucus layer that lines the air passages serves as a filter to trap bacteria and particulate matter. The dog collects scents by air-scenting sniffing volatile oils that are traveling in the air and sniffing the ground. When a dog sniffs, he inhales the scented chemicals into his nasal cavities, where they are trapped in mucus and processed by the sensory cells. Several cilia extend from each of the sensory cells into the nasal cavity, and each of these cilia contains many scent receptors.
After the cell receptors trap the smells, each cell has several 10 to axons that deliver their messages back through the ethmoid bone directly to the olfactory bulb of the brain. There are many interconnections between all these centers, with the result that a simple smell, detected by a dog, likely has an entire set of meanings, memories, and emotional ties that only that dog can know and interpret. Much of the deeper work of trying to understand the sense of smell has been done on humans; how do you ask a dog what he feels or remembers when he smells a certain odor?
But we do know that dogs have much more surface area within their nasal cavities, and this area is well supplied with sensory cells — estimates of the total number of these cells vary and depend on the breed, but they have been cited as somewhere between million and several times that. This compares with estimates of human numbers that are in the 5- to million-cell range. In addition, the dog has devoted a tremendous amount of his brain tissue to olfactory cells. All this adds up to a canine scenter that has thousands to millions of times the ability of his human counterpart.
Early work has begun to use dogs to test the breath of humans — to help diagnose internal diseases before they become evident with other methods. Rather, the scenting nerve cells of the organ are quite different from those in normal olfactory tissue in that they respond to a range of substances that have large molecules, but often no detectable odor. In fact, recent evidence suggests that the two separate but parallel systems of odor detection cooperate in surprising ways to produce novel sensibilities not achievable by either of them on their own.
The primary function of the Organ is to detect pheromones, which then provides both sexes with information as to the availability of the opposite sex for breeding. Horses, deer, and goats are the masters of this reaction, and many dogs can produce a rather pronounced flehmen when the time is right. Apparently, as much as some folks would like to deny it, we humans are indeed sexual animals, just like the rest of nature. We know, for example, that animals and humans prefer to mingle with the scent of members within their own pack or herd or, in the case of humans, in their own culture , and horses and dogs can detect the human scent of fear.
We know that certain scents may be linked with memories of past events, and even with positive or negative emotions. Throughout our lifetime, then, the smell of fresh-baked cookies may evoke a positive feeling. In traditional Chinese medicine, the nose — along with the throat and vocal cords — are all considered to be intimately connected to the function of the Lungs.
Many nose and throat disorders are therefore treated through the Lung Meridian. In addition to the normally recommended wholesome diet for dogs, a few nutrients may be especially beneficial for the nose and its ability to smell. Glutamate has been proposed as the olfactory cell neurotransmitter at least in turtles, toads, and rats.
While these may prove to be helpful for smelling especially in the older dog , no definitive studies have yet been done to ascertain proper dosages or definite benefits for dogs. Remember that, as an animal ages, he loses some or all of his ability to smell. Older animals may need to be tempted to eat, and some seem to find spicy foods more palatable. Try several culinary herbs to see if your dog prefers any of them — most of the culinary herbs are high in nutrients and antioxidant, anti-aging activity.
Viral infection is the most common cause of acute rhinitis or sinusitis in dogs, with canine distemper, adenovirus types 1 and 2, and parainfluenza the most frequently incriminated. Asking family members for support in tasting food are problem-focused strategies used by a similar high proportion of about two-thirds of the patients Blomqvist et al. Another coping mechanism frequently reported is the purchase of gas and smoke detectors.
In a study including patients, we found adjustment to impaired olfactory function by giving this domain less importance Croy et al. Compared with hyposmic patients, anosmic patients stated that they try to use the sense of smell less often in daily life. Both groups rated their sense of smell as less important than a group of normosmic people. These patients also exhibited significantly higher depression scores. However, there seems to be only a small number of patients with major problems in coping with the impairment. That is probably why Frasnelli and Hummel found no general correlation between coping and depression.
In a study conducted by Simopoulos et al. Furthermore, the more pronounced the olfactory disorder, the more symptoms of anxiety and depression were reported. However, inclusion of a group without impaired olfactory function is likely to overestimate the coherence. Among groups of patients with olfactory loss only, the correlation between olfactory impairment and olfactory-related QoL Frasnelli and Hummel ; Neuland et al. There are indications that general QoL is reduced more severely in hyposmic compared with anosmic patients Neuland et al.
The authors interpret this as enhanced hope for recovery in hyposmic patients, which may prevent attempts to cope with the disorder. When asked specifically about several domains related to olfaction, disease duration showed no influence on daily life disturbance Temmel et al. However, adjustment over time can be seen when patients are asked in a different way. Decreased enjoyment of food is less pronounced when the disorder lasts more than 3 years Ferris and Duffy and the number of household hazards decreases over the first 2 years Bojanowski et al.
Along the same line, Tennen et al. In accordance, patients with a disorder duration of more than 1 year tended to use their sense of olfaction less often than patients with shorter disorder duration, indicating adjustment Croy et al. Shu et al. Physiological anorexia is common in the older population and may—at least to some degree—be explained by olfactory loss, which also means loss of retronasal olfactory function affecting flavor perception.
Data from older people with changes in olfactory perception also suggest a decrease in food appreciation and appetite, change in food choice such as decreased dietary variation, poor nutritional status, change in body weight, and an increased risk for chronic disease Fanelli and Stevenhagen ; Wysocki and Pelchat ; Mattes and Cowart ; Duffy et al.
Rolls and McDermott have demonstrated that sensory-specific satiety is less pronounced in older people compared with young adults, which may explain the decreased dietary variation with age Rolls and McDermott However, not all studies have shown a relation between chemosensory impairment and nutritional problems Ferris and Duffy There may also be a considerable risk among older people to ingest spoiled food. It has, for example, been suggested that older adults are less likely than young adults to reject foods with unpleasant odors Pelchat It is possible that this results in increased risk of minor gastrointestinal complaints, which is a common condition among elderly Firth and Prather Importantly, Schiffman and collaborators have reported that anorexia in the older people often remits when foods are amplified by additional flavoring e.
However, more recently, these early findings have been discussed controversially Koskinen et al. Boesveldt et al. In a line, Seo et al. However, the associations with QoL and depression did not remain when controlling for cognitive function. This illustrates the importance of controlling for incipient dementia when studying QoL and depression in older people with olfactory impairment. Nevertheless, associations between olfactory impairment and poor QoL and depression have been reported even after controlling for loss in cognitive function among older people and are associated also with functional disability and reduced independence Gopinath et al.
Olfaction plays an important role for ingestion, harm avoidance, and social communication. However, about one-fifth of the population exhibits smell disorders, and most of them are not aware of it. Those persons who seek medical treatment often have problems finding a physician who is familiar with smell disorders Haxel et al.
Almost exclusively, patients presenting to such specialized physicians or to smell and taste centers are included in studies about the consequences of olfactory loss. This means that the basic population of people with smell disorders is not represented equally but that there is a strong bias towards patients with a certain psychological strain.
This has to be kept in mind when we conclude that olfactory loss leads to disturbances in olfactory important areas, mainly in eating, detecting of harmful food and smoke, and to some extend, in social situations and working life. Most of the patients seem to cope well with these restrictions. However, about one-third of the patients with acquired and congenital olfactory disorders have more severe problems and express a noticeable reduction in QoL. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
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Volume Article Contents. The role of olfaction. Types of olfactory disorders and prevalence. Consequences of olfactory disorders. Final remarks. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Steven Nordin. Thomas Hummel. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Olfactory disorders are common and affect about one-fifth of the general population. Depression , olfaction , prevalence , quality of life , smell. Table 1. Open in new tab. Open in new tab Download slide. MR evaluation in patients with isolated anosmia since birth or early childhood. Search ADS.
Olfactory Disorders and Quality of Life—An Updated Review | Chemical Senses | Oxford Academic
Gustatory and olfactory dysfunction in older adults: a national probability study. Distorted odorant perception: analysis of a series of 56 patients with parosmia. Clinical experience with patients with olfactory complaints, and their quality of life. Assessing health related quality of life in medicine. An overview over concepts, methods and applications in international research. The effects of mouth movements, swallowing, and spitting on retronasal odor perception.
Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data. Learning about the functions of the olfactory system from people without a sense of smell. Impaired sensory functioning in elders: The relation with its potential determinants and nutritional intake.
Smell and taste disorders, a study of patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center. Olfactory dysfunction and related nutritional risk in free-living, elderly women.
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