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In , Juan Pablo Duarte founded a secret society called La Trinitaria , which sought the complete independence of Santo Domingo without any foreign intervention. On February 27, , the surviving members of La Trinitaria declared the independence from Haiti. They were backed by Pedro Santana , a wealthy cattle rancher from El Seibo , who became general of the army of the nascent republic.

Threatening the nation's independence were renewed Haitian invasions. The Dominicans repelled the Haitian forces, on both land and sea, by December The Haitians invaded again in after France recognized the Dominican Republic as an independent nation. In an overwhelming onslaught, the Haitians seized one frontier town after another. The Dominican Republic's first constitution was adopted on November 6, The state was commonly known as Santo Domingo in English until the early 20th century.

These privileges not only served him to win the war but also allowed him to persecute, execute and drive into exile his political opponents, among which Duarte was the most important. In Haiti after the fall of Boyer, black leaders had ascended to the power once enjoyed exclusively by the mulatto elite. Without adequate roads, the regions of the Dominican Republic developed in isolation from one another. In the south, also known at the time as Ozama, the economy was dominated by cattle-ranching particularly in the southeastern savannah and cutting mahogany and other hardwoods for export.

This region retained a semi-feudal character, with little commercial agriculture, the hacienda as the dominant social unit, and the majority of the population living at a subsistence level. In the north better-known as Cibao , the nation's richest farmland, peasants supplemented their subsistence crops by growing tobacco for export, mainly to Germany.

Tobacco required less land than cattle ranching and was mainly grown by smallholders, who relied on itinerant traders to transport their crops to Puerto Plata and Monte Cristi. Santana antagonized the Cibao farmers, enriching himself and his supporters at their expense by resorting to multiple peso printings that allowed him to buy their crops for a fraction of their value.

In , he was forced to resign and was succeeded by his vice-president, Manuel Jimenes. In , after imprisoning, silencing, exiling, and executing many of his opponents and due to political and economic reasons, Santana signed a pact with the Spanish Crown and reverted the Dominican nation to colonial status. This action was supported by the cattlemen of the south while the northern elites opposed it.

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Political strife again prevailed in the following years; warlords ruled, military revolts were extremely common, and the nation amassed debt. In , President Ulysses S. Grant ordered U. Marines to the island for the first time. Relative peace came to the country in the s, which saw the coming to power of General Ulises Heureaux.

He was, however, "a consummate dissembler," who put the nation deep into debt while using much of the proceeds for his personal use and to maintain his police state. Heureaux became rampantly despotic and unpopular. However, the relative calm over which he presided allowed improvement in the Dominican economy. The sugar industry was modernized, [88] : p10 and the country attracted foreign workers and immigrants. From on, short-lived governments were again the norm, with their power usurped by caudillos in parts of the country. Furthermore, the national government was bankrupt and, unable to pay Heureaux's debts, faced the threat of military intervention by France and other European creditor powers.

United States President Theodore Roosevelt sought to prevent European intervention, largely to protect the routes to the future Panama Canal , as the canal was already under construction. He made a small military intervention to ward off European powers, to proclaim his famous Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine , and also to obtain his Dominican agreement for U.

A agreement provided for the arrangement to last 50 years. The United States agreed to use part of the customs proceeds to reduce the immense foreign debt of the Dominican Republic and assumed responsibility for said debt. The result was several years of great political instability and civil war. A political deadlock in was broken after an ultimatum by Wilson telling the Dominicans to choose a president or see the U. A provisional president was chosen, and later the same year relatively free elections put former president — Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra back in power.

To achieve a more broadly supported government, Jimenes named opposition individuals to his cabinet. But this brought no peace and, with his former Secretary of War Desiderio Arias maneuvering to depose him and despite a U. Wilson thus ordered the U. Marines landed on May 16, , and had control of the country two months later. The military government established by the U. The occupying government also revived the Dominican economy, reduced the nation's debt, built a road network that at last interconnected all regions of the country, and created a professional National Guard to replace the warring partisan units.

Vigorous opposition to the occupation continued, nevertheless, and after World War I it increased in the U. There, President Warren G. Harding —23 , Wilson's successor, worked to put an end to the occupation, as he had promised to do during his campaign. The U. He was inaugurated on July 13, and the last U. In six years, the Marines were involved in at least engagements, with insurgents killed or wounded in action.

During the election campaign, Trujillo used the army to unleash his repression, forcing his opponents to withdraw from the race. Trujillo stood to elect himself, and in May he was elected president virtually unopposed after a violent campaign against his opponents, ascending to power on August 16, There was considerable economic growth during Rafael Trujillo 's long and iron-fisted regime, although a great deal of the wealth was taken by the dictator and other regime elements. There was progress in healthcare, education, and transportation, with the building of hospitals and clinics, schools, and roads and harbors.

Trujillo also carried out an important housing construction program and instituted a pension plan. He finally negotiated an undisputed border with Haiti in and achieved the end of the year customs agreement in , instead of He made the country debt-free in This was accompanied by absolute repression and the copious use of murder, torture, and terrorist methods against the opposition. Some other places he renamed after members of his family. The secret police allegedly murdered more than , [59] people during the Trujillo era. Although one-quarter Haitian, Trujillo promoted propaganda against them.

The army killed an estimated 17, to 35, Haitian men, women, and children over six days, from the night of October 2, , through October 8, To avoid leaving evidence of the army's involvement, the soldiers used edged weapons rather than guns. Along with their husbands, the sisters were conspiring to overthrow Trujillo in a violent revolt. The Mirabals had communist ideological leanings as did their husbands. The sisters have received many honors posthumously and have many memorials in various cities in the Dominican Republic.

The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women is observed on the anniversary of their deaths. For a long time, the U. This support persisted despite the assassinations of political opposition, the massacre of Haitians, and Trujillo's plots against other countries. Trujillo had become expendable. According to Chester Bowles , the U.

Undersecretary of State, internal Department of State discussions in on the topic were vigorous. Goodwin , Assistant Special Counsel to the President, who had direct contacts with the rebel alliance, argued for intervention against Trujillo. When Allen Dulles found this out the next morning, he withdrew the order. We later discovered it had already been carried out. Trujillo was assassinated on May 30, In February , a democratically elected government under leftist Juan Bosch took office but it was overthrown in September. On April 24, , after 19 months of military rule, a pro-Bosch revolt broke out.

Days later U. President Lyndon Johnson , concerned that Communists might take over the revolt and create a "second Cuba," sent the Marines, followed immediately by the U. He had been Trujillo's last puppet-president. The Dominican death toll for the entire period of civil war and occupation totaled more than three thousand, many of them black civilians killed when the US-backed military junta engaged in a campaign of ethnic cleansing in the northern also the industrial part of Santo Domingo.

Balaguer remained in power as president for 12 years. His tenure was a period of repression of human rights and civil liberties, ostensibly to keep pro-Castro or pro-communist parties out of power; 11, persons were killed. It was, however, praised for an ambitious infrastructure program, which included the construction of large housing projects, sports complexes, theaters, museums, aqueducts, roads, highways, and the massive Columbus Lighthouse , completed in during a later tenure.

Under the PRD presidents, the Dominican Republic enjoyed a period of relative freedom and basic human rights. The elections were flawed, bringing on international pressure, to which Balaguer responded by scheduling another presidential contest in Balaguer was not a candidate. This was a time of economic troubles. On the other hand, his administrations have been accused of corruption.

Danilo Medina of the PLD was elected president in and re-elected in On the other hand, a significant increase in crime, government corruption and a weak justice system threaten to overshadow their administrative period. The Dominican Republic comprises the eastern two-thirds of Hispaniola , the second largest island in the Greater Antilles , with the Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Caribbean Sea to the south. The Dominican Republic's capital and largest city Santo Domingo is on the southern coast. The Dominican Republic has four important mountain ranges.

It gradually bends southwards and finishes near the town of Azua , on the Caribbean coast. In the Cordillera Central are the four highest peaks in the Caribbean: Pico Duarte 3, metres or 10, feet above sea level , [3] La Pelona 3, metres or 10, feet , La Rucilla 3, metres or 10, feet , and Pico Yaque 2, metres or 9, feet. In the southwest corner of the country, south of the Cordillera Central, there are two other ranges: the more northerly of the two is the Sierra de Neiba , while in the south the Sierra de Bahoruco is a continuation of the Massif de la Selle in Haiti.

Between the Central and Northern mountain ranges lies the rich and fertile Cibao valley. This major valley is home to the cities of Santiago and La Vega and most of the farming areas of the nation. Much of the land around the Enriquillo Basin is below sea level, with a hot, arid, desert-like environment. There are other smaller valleys in the mountains, such as the Constanza , Jarabacoa , Villa Altagracia , and Bonao valleys.

Stretching north and east of Santo Domingo, it contains many sugar plantations in the savannahs that are common there. West of Santo Domingo its width is reduced to 10 kilometres 6. A few other small coastal plains are on the northern coast and in the Pedernales Peninsula. Four major rivers drain the numerous mountains of the Dominican Republic. The Yaque del Norte is the longest and most important Dominican river.

It carries excess water down from the Cibao Valley and empties into Monte Cristi Bay, in the northwest. The Artibonito is the longest river of Hispaniola and flows westward into Haiti. There are many lakes and coastal lagoons. There are many small offshore islands and cays that form part of the Dominican territory. The two largest islands near shore are Saona , in the southeast, and Beata , in the southwest. The Dominican Republic is located near fault action in the Caribbean. In , it suffered a magnitude 8.

Caribbean countries and the United States have collaborated to create tsunami warning systems and are mapping high-risk low-lying areas. The Dominican Republic has a tropical rainforest climate in the coastal and lowland areas. Due to its diverse topography, Dominican Republic's climate shows considerable variation over short distances and is the most varied of all the Antilles.

January and February are the coolest months of the year while August is the hottest month. Snowfall can be seen on rare occasions on the summit of Pico Duarte. The wet season along the northern coast lasts from November through January. Elsewhere the wet season stretches from May through November, with May being the wettest month.

Average annual rainfall is 1, millimetres The driest part of the country lies in the west. Hurricanes are most likely between June and October. The Dominican Republic is a representative democracy or democratic republic , [4] [3] [] with three branches of power: executive, legislative , and judicial. The president of the Dominican Republic heads the executive branch and executes laws passed by the congress , appoints the cabinet, and is commander in chief of the armed forces. The president and vice-president run for office on the same ticket and are elected by direct vote for 4-year terms.

The national legislature is bicameral, composed of a senate , which has 32 members, and the Chamber of Deputies , with members. Judicial authority rests with the Supreme Court of Justice 's 16 members. They are appointed by a council composed of the president, the leaders of both houses of Congress, the President of the Supreme Court, and an opposition or non—governing-party member. The court "alone hears actions against the president, designated members of his Cabinet, and members of Congress when the legislature is in session.

The Dominican Republic has a multi-party political system. Elections are held every two years, alternating between the presidential elections , which are held in years evenly divisible by four, and the congressional and municipal elections, which are held in even-numbered years not divisible by four. The contest was won by Medina with Candidate Guillermo Moreno obtained 1. In , the Modern Revolutionary Party Spanish : Partido revolucionario Moderno was created [] by a faction of leaders from the PRD and has since become the predominant opposition party, polling in second place for the upcoming May general elections.

The Dominican Republic has a close relationship with the United States and with the other states of the Inter-American system. The Dominican Republic has very strong ties and relations with Puerto Rico. The Dominican Republic's relationship with neighbouring Haiti is strained over mass Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic, with citizens of the Dominican Republic blaming the Haitians for increased crime and other social problems.

Congress authorizes a combined military force of 44, active duty personnel. Actual active duty strength is approximately 32, The commander in chief of the military is the president. The army is larger than the other services combined with approximately 20, active duty personnel, consisting of six infantry brigades , a combat support brigade, and a combat service support brigade. The air force operates two main bases, one in the southern region near Santo Domingo and one in the northern region near Puerto Plata. The navy operates two major naval bases, one in Santo Domingo and one in Las Calderas on the southwestern coast, and maintains 12 operational vessels.

The Dominican Republic has the second largest military in the Caribbean region after Cuba. The Dominican National Police force contains 32, agents. The police are not part of the Dominican armed forces but share some overlapping security functions. Sixty-three percent of the force serve in areas outside traditional police functions, similar to the situation of their military counterparts.

The Dominican Republic is divided into 31 provinces. The provinces are divided into municipalities municipios ; singular municipio. They are the second-level political and administrative subdivisions of the country. The president appoints the governors of the 31 provinces.

Mayors and municipal councils administer the municipal districts and the National District Santo Domingo. They are elected at the same time as congressional representatives. The Dominican Republic is the largest economy [24] according to the U. Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic have been standing out as one of the fastest-growing economies in the Americas — with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.

During the last three decades, the Dominican economy, formerly dependent on the export of agricultural commodities mainly sugar, cocoa and coffee , has transitioned to a diversified mix of services, manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and trade. The country also has "marked income inequality. Mass illegal Haitian immigration and the integration of Dominicans of Haitian descent are major issues. Economic growth takes place in spite of a chronic energy shortage, [] which causes frequent blackouts and very high prices.

Despite a widening merchandise trade deficit , tourism earnings and remittances have helped build foreign exchange reserves. These statistics emphasize national government corruption, foreign economic interference in the country, and the rift between the rich and poor. The Dominican Republic has a noted problem of child labor in its coffee, rice, sugarcane, and tomato industries. Department of Labor. According to the Global Slavery Index , an estimated , people are enslaved in the modern day Dominican Republic, or 1. The exchange rate to the U. The year-round golf courses are major attractions.

Tourism is one of the fueling factors in the Dominican Republic's economic growth. The Dominican Republic is the most popular tourist destination in the Caribbean. Ecotourism has also been a topic increasingly important in this nation, with towns like Jarabacoa and neighboring Constanza , and locations like the Pico Duarte , Bahia de las Aguilas , and others becoming more significant in efforts to increase direct benefits from tourism.

Most residents from other countries are required to get a tourist card , depending on the country they live in.

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In the last 10 years the Dominican Republic has become one of the worlds notably progressive states in terms of recycling and waste disposal. A UN report cited there was a The country has three national trunk highways, which connect every major town. These highways have been consistently improved with the expansion and reconstruction of many sections. Two other national highways serve as spur DR-5 or alternative routes DR In addition to the national highways, the government has embarked on an expansive reconstruction of spur secondary routes, which connect smaller towns to the trunk routes.

In the last few years the government constructed a kilometer toll road that connects Santo Domingo with the country's northeastern peninsula. Despite these efforts, many secondary routes still remain either unpaved or in need of maintenance. There is currently a nationwide program to pave these and other commonly used routes. Also, the Santiago light rail system is in planning stages but currently on hold.

The government transportation system covers large routes in metropolitan areas such as Santo Domingo and Santiago. The Dominican Republic has a rapid transit system in Santo Domingo , the country's capital. It is the most extensive metro system in the insular Caribbean and Central American region by length and number of stations. The second line, which opened in April , is meant to relieve the congestion along the Duarte-Kennedy-Centenario Corridor in the city from west to east. Before the opening of the second line, 30,, passengers rode the Santo Domingo Metro in The Dominican Republic has a well developed telecommunications infrastructure, with extensive mobile phone and landline services.

Cable Internet and DSL are available in most parts of the country, and many Internet service providers offer 3G wireless internet service.

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Projects to extend Wi-Fi hot spots have been made in Santo Domingo. The country's commercial radio stations and television stations are in the process of transferring to the digital spectrum , via HD Radio and HDTV after officially adopting ATSC as the digital medium in the country with a switch-off of analog transmission by September In June there were more than 8 million phone line subscribers land and cell users in the D.

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The communications sector generates about 3. In November , the Dominican Republic became the first Latin American country to pledge to include a "gender perspective" in every information and communications technology ICT initiative and policy developed by the government. The country's antiquated power grid causes transmission losses that account for a large share of billed electricity from generators.

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During the Trujillo regime electrical service was introduced to many cities. Around half of the Dominican Republic's 2. Electrically powered items from the United States work with no modifications. The majority of the Dominican Republic has access to electricity. Tourist areas tend to have more reliable power, as do business, travel, healthcare, and vital infrastructure. Some generating companies are undercapitalized and at times unable to purchase adequate fuel supplies. The Dominican Republic's population was 10,, in The capital city Santo Domingo had a population of 2,, in Other important cities are Santiago de los Caballeros pop.

Per the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for — was 2. Self-identified Jews number about 3,; other Dominicans may have some Jewish ancestry because of marriages among converted Jewish Catholics and other Dominicans since the colonial years. Some Dominicans born in the United States now reside in the Dominican Republic, creating a kind of expatriate community.

The population of the Dominican Republic is mostly Spanish -speaking. The local variant of Spanish is called Dominican Spanish , which closely resembles other Spanish vernaculars in the Caribbean and the Canarian Spanish. In addition, it has influences from African languages and borrowed words from indigenous Caribbean languages particular to the island of Hispaniola. Haitian Creole is the largest minority language in the Dominican Republic and is spoken by Haitian immigrants and their descendants.

They are the descendants of formerly enslaved African Americans who arrived in the nineteenth century, but only a few elders speak the language today. From to missionaries from the Episcopal , Free Methodist , Seventh-day Adventist and Moravians churches began work in the Dominican Republic. The Catholic Church began to lose its strong dominance in the late 19th century. This was due to a lack of funding, priests, and support programs. During the same time, Protestant Evangelicalism began to gain a wider support "with their emphasis on personal responsibility and family rejuvenation, economic entrepreneurship, and biblical fundamentalism ".

The Dominican Republic has historically granted extensive religious freedom. According to the United States Department of State , "The constitution specifies that there is no state church and provides for freedom of religion and belief. A concordat with the Vatican designates Catholicism as the official religion and extends special privileges to the Catholic Church not granted to other religious groups. These include the legal recognition of church law, use of public funds to underwrite some church expenses, and complete exoneration from customs duties.

Letters of protest were sent against the mass arrests of government adversaries. Trujillo began a campaign against the Catholic Church and planned to arrest priests and bishops who preached against the government. This campaign ended before it was put into place, with his assassination. It has remained the center of the Jewish population since. In the 20th century, many Arabs from Lebanon , Syria , and Palestine , [] Japanese, and, to a lesser degree, Koreans settled in the country as agricultural laborers and merchants.

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The Chinese companies found business in telecom, mining, and railroads. The Arab community is rising at an increasing rate and is estimated at 80, In addition, there are descendants of immigrants who came from other Caribbean islands, including St. Kitts and Nevis , Antigua , St. Vincent , Montserrat , Tortola , St. Croix , St. Thomas , and Guadeloupe. Puerto Rican, and to a lesser extent, Cuban immigrants fled to the Dominican Republic from the mids until about due to a poor economy and social unrest in their respective home countries. Numerous immigrants have come from other Caribbean countries, as the country has offered economic opportunities.

There are about 32, Jamaicans living in the Dominican Republic. Haiti is the neighboring nation to the Dominican Republic and is considerably poorer, less developed and is additionally the least developed country in the western hemisphere. The country of nine million people also has a fast growing population, but over two-thirds of the labor force lack formal jobs. As a result, hundreds of thousands of Haitians have migrated to the Dominican Republic, with some estimates of , Haitians in the country, [] while others put the Haitian-born population as high as one million.

Due to the lack of basic amenities and medical facilities in Haiti a large number of Haitian women, often arriving with several health problems, cross the border to Dominican soil. They deliberately come during their last weeks of pregnancy to obtain medical attention for childbirth, since Dominican public hospitals do not refuse medical services based on nationality or legal status.

Haiti also suffers from severe environmental degradation. Deforestation is rampant in Haiti; today less than 4 percent of Haiti's forests remain, and in many places the soil has eroded right down to the bedrock. Because of Haiti running out of plant material to burn, some Haitian bootleggers have created an illegal market for charcoal on the Dominican side. Conservative estimates calculate the illegal movement of tons of charcoal per week from the Dominican Republic to Haiti. Dominican officials estimate that at least 10 trucks per week are crossing the border loaded with charcoal.

It is important not to confuse national sovereignty with indifference, and not to confuse security with xenophobia. The children of Haitian immigrants are eligible for Haitian nationality, [] are denied it by Haiti because of a lack of proper documents or witnesses. The first of three lateth century emigration waves began in after the assassination of dictator Trujillo, [] due to fear of retaliation by Trujillo's allies and political uncertainty in general. In , the United States began a military occupation of the Dominican Republic to end a civil war.

Upon this, the U. Communities established by the first wave of immigrants to the U. In the early s, underemployment, inflation, and the rise in value of the dollar all contributed to a third wave of emigration from the Dominican Republic. Today, emigration from the Dominican Republic remains high.

Although that number is slowly decreasing and immigration trends have reversed because of Puerto Rico's economic crisis as of [update]. In , the Dominican Republic had a birth rate of See Health in the Dominican Republic. Primary education is regulated by the Ministry of Education, with education being a right of all citizens and youth in the Dominican Republic. Preschool education is organized in different cycles and serves the 2—4 age group and the 4—6 age group.

Preschool education is not mandatory except for the last year. Basic education is compulsory and serves the population of the 6—14 age group. Secondary education is not compulsory, although it is the duty of the state to offer it for free. It caters to the 14—18 age group and is organized in a common core of four years and three modes of two years of study that are offered in three different options: general or academic, vocational industrial, agricultural, and services , and artistic.

The higher education system consists of institutes and universities. The institutes offer courses of a higher technical level. The universities offer technical careers, undergraduate and graduate; these are regulated by the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology.

In , the Dominican Republic had a murder rate of The Dominican Republic has become a trans-shipment point for Colombian drugs destined for Europe as well as the United States and Canada. The often light treatment of violent criminals has been a continuous source of local controversy. In April , five teenagers, aged 15 to 17, shot and killed two taxi drivers and killed another five by forcing them to drink drain-cleaning acid. On September 24, , the teens were sentenced to prison terms of three to five years, despite the protests of the taxi drivers' families.

Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music, and baseball as the favorite sport. Dominican art is perhaps most commonly associated with the bright, vibrant colors and images that are sold in every tourist gift shop across the country. However, the country has a long history of fine art that goes back to the middle of the s when the country became independent and the beginnings of a national art scene emerged.

Historically, the painting of this time were centered around images connected to national independence, historical scenes, portraits but also landscapes and images of still life. Styles of painting ranged between neoclassicism and romanticism. Between and the art scene was influenced by styles of realism and impressionism. Dominican artists were focused on breaking from previous, academic styles in order to develop more independent and individual styles.

The architecture in the Dominican Republic represents a complex blend of diverse cultures. The deep influence of the European colonists is the most evident throughout the country. Characterized by ornate designs and baroque structures, the style can best be seen in the capital city of Santo Domingo , which is home to the first cathedral, castle, monastery, and fortress in all of the Americas , located in the city's Colonial Zone , an area declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

It can also be observed on buildings that contain stucco exteriors, arched doors and windows, and red tiled roofs. The indigenous peoples of the Dominican Republic have also had a significant influence on the architecture of the country. Utilizing mud, thatched roofs, and mahogany trees, they gave buildings and the furniture inside a natural look, seamlessly blending in with the island's surroundings. Lately, with the rise in tourism and increasing popularity as a Caribbean vacation destination, architects in the Dominican Republic have now begun to incorporate cutting-edge designs that emphasize luxury.

In many ways an architectural playground, villas and hotels implement new styles, while offering new takes on the old. This new style is characterized by simplified, angular corners and large windows that blend outdoor and indoor spaces. As with the culture as a whole, contemporary architects embrace the Dominican Republic's rich history and various cultures to create something new. Surveying modern villas, one can find any combination of the three major styles: a villa may contain angular, modernist building construction, Spanish Colonial-style arched windows, and a traditional Taino hammock in the bedroom balcony.

The typical cuisine is quite similar to what can be found in other Latin American countries. Lunch, generally the largest and most important meal of the day, usually consists of rice, meat, beans, and salad. Sancocho is a stew often made with seven varieties of meat.

Meals tend to favor meats and starches over dairy products and vegetables. Throughout the south-central coast, bulgur , or whole wheat, is a main ingredient in quipes or tipili bulgur salad. Some treats Dominicans enjoy are arroz con leche or arroz con dulce , bizcocho dominicano lit. Its syncopated beats use Latin percussion , brass instruments , bass, and piano or keyboard. Radio, television, and international media popularized it further. Merengue became popular in the United States, mostly on the East Coast , during the s and s, [] : when many Dominican artists residing in the U.

The emergence of bachata , along with an increase in the number of Dominicans living among other Latino groups in New York, New Jersey , and Florida, has contributed to Dominican music's overall growth in popularity. Bachata , a form of music and dance that originated in the countryside and rural marginal neighborhoods of the Dominican Republic, has become quite popular in recent years. Its subjects are often romantic; especially prevalent are tales of heartbreak and sadness.

In fact, the original name for the genre was amargue "bitterness," or "bitter music," , until the rather ambiguous and mood-neutral term bachata became popular. Bachata grew out of, and is still closely related to, the pan-Latin American romantic style called bolero.

Over time, it has been influenced by merengue and by a variety of Latin American guitar styles. Palo is an Afro-Dominican sacred music that can be found throughout the island. The drum and human voice are the principal instruments. Palo is played at religious ceremonies—usually coinciding with saints' religious feast days—as well as for secular parties and special occasions.

Its roots are in the Congo region of central-west Africa, but it is mixed with European influences in the melodies. Salsa music has had a great deal of popularity in the country. During the late s Dominican musicians like Johnny Pacheco , creator of the Fania All Stars , played a significant role in the development and popularization of the genre. Dominican rock is also popular. Many, if not the majority, of its performers are based in Santo Domingo and Santiago. By , he had designs bearing his own label. After establishing himself in the US, de la Renta opened boutiques across the country.

Some of the Dominican Republic's important symbols are the flag , the coat of arms , and the national anthem, titled Himno Nacional. The flag has a large white cross that divides it into four quarters. Two quarters are red and two are blue. Red represents the blood shed by the liberators. Blue expresses God's protection over the nation. The white cross symbolizes the struggle of the liberators to bequeath future generations a free nation.

An alternative interpretation is that blue represents the ideals of progress and liberty, whereas white symbolizes peace and unity among Dominicans. In the center of the cross is the Dominican coat of arms, in the same colors as the national flag.

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The coat of arms pictures a red, white, and blue flag-draped shield with a Bible, a gold cross, and arrows; the shield is surrounded by an olive branch on the left and a palm branch on the right. The Bible traditionally represents the truth and the light.

The gold cross symbolizes the redemption from slavery, and the arrows symbolize the noble soldiers and their proud military. Out of all the flags in the world, the depiction of a Bible is unique to the Dominican flag. Baseball is by far the most popular sport in the Dominican Republic. Its season usually begins in October and ends in January.

Ozzie Virgil, Sr. Felipe Alou has also enjoyed success as a manager [] and Omar Minaya as a general manager. In , the Dominican team went undefeated en route to winning the World Baseball Classic. In boxing , the country has produced scores of world-class fighters and several world champions, [] such as Carlos Cruz , his brother Leo , Juan Guzman , and Joan Guzman.

Basketball also enjoys a relatively high level of popularity. Other important sports are volleyball , introduced in by U. Marines and controlled by the Dominican Volleyball Federation , taekwondo , in which Gabriel Mercedes won an Olympic silver medal in , and judo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Dominica. For other uses, see Dominican disambiguation. Country in the Caribbean. Coat of arms. Spanish 0. Main article: History of the Dominican Republic.

Main article: Chiefdoms of Hispaniola. Main article: Era de Francia. Main article: Unification of Hispaniola. See also: Dominican War of Independence. See also: Dominican Restoration War. See also: United States occupation of the Dominican Republic — Main article: Geography of the Dominican Republic. Main article: Climate of the Dominican Republic. Main article: Politics of the Dominican Republic. Further information: Foreign relations of the Dominican Republic. Main article: Military of the Dominican Republic. Main article: Economy of the Dominican Republic. Main article: Dominican peso.

Main article: Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Main article: Transportation in the Dominican Republic. Main article: Santo Domingo Metro. Main article: Telecommunications in the Dominican Republic. Main article: Electricity sector in the Dominican Republic. Main article: Demographics of the Dominican Republic.

Main article: People of the Dominican Republic. Further information: List of cities in the Dominican Republic. Main article: Religion in the Dominican Republic. Main article: Haitians in the Dominican Republic. Main article: Education in the Dominican Republic.

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Main article: Sports in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic portal. Historical Dictionary of the Dominican Republic. Retrieved June 4, Archived from the original on June 26, Retrieved February 27, Ediciones Doce Calles, S. Retrieved July 1, Historia de Santo Domingo, Volumen 2. Universidad de Virginia. Diario Libre. August 18, CQ Press Your definitive resource for politics, policy and people. Remember me? Back Institutional Login Please choose from an option shown below. Need help logging in? Click here. Don't have access? View purchasing options. Find in this title Show Hide Page Numbers.

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St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book
St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book
St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book
St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book
St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book
St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book
St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book
St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book
St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book

Related St Barthelemy - Guidebook Chapter. Chapter from Caribbean Islands Travel Guide Book

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