Let us listen to some selected music of the Classical Period. List down all the musical terms you are familiar with. What do you know about Classical era? The cultural life was dominated by the aristocracy, as patrons of musicians and artists who generally influenced the arts.
Significant changes in musical forms and styles were made. In the middle of the 18th century, Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture, literature, and the arts, known as Classicism. It was also pushed forward by changes in the economic order and in social structure. Instrumental music was patronized primarily by the nobility. Important historical events that occurred in the West during this era were the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, the American Declaration of Independence in and the American Revolution. The same characteristics may also describe the melodies of classical music.
Harmony and texture is homophonic in general. The dynamics of loud and soft were clearly shown through the extensive use of crescendo and diminuendo. A style of broken chord accompaniment called, Alberti Bass was practiced. Sonata, Concerto, and Symphony are the instrumental forms developed during this era while Opera Seria and Opera Buffa are the two vocal forms.
Write your answer on the blanks. Their compositions are now commonly used as music to animated series of popular cartoon companies such as Looney Toons, Warner Brothers, 20th Century Fox, Pixar, etc. Write your answer on the blank before each number. Piano Sonata No 11 in A major Rondo 3rd mov. Piano Sonata no 14 in C m Moonlight 1st mov. Symphony No. Fur Elise d. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik e.
The Ring f. Backyardigan He came from a poor family and his music led to his rise in social status. He was hired by rich patrons and eventually became a musical director for the Esterhazy family for 30 years. His music reflects his character and personality: mainly calm, balanced, serious but with touches of humor. He was able to compose over symphonies and developed them into long forms for a large orchestra.
He also wrote chamber piano music and choral works. Haydn Symphony No. Stanford University Press. Downloaded from Wikimedia. At age five, he was already playing the violin and the harpsichord; at six, he was recognized as an exceptional pianist and, at seven, he was already composing excellent music. At age thirteen, he had written sonatas, concertos, symphonies, religious works, and operas and operettas. He experimented in all kinds of music and composed over works. Unfortunately, due to mismanaged finances he lived his life in poverty, died young and was buried in an unknown grave.
A, Mozart Piano Sonata No. Mozart: PianoSonata No. Mozart Symphony No. He was the composer who bridged the late Classical era and the early Romantic era. He was a talented pianist and composer. His famous compositions include 32 piano sonatas, 21 set of variations, 9 symphonies, 5 concertos for piano, 16 string quartets and choral music. His known symphonies are: Symphony No. He began to go deaf in but this did not become a hindrance. He continued composing through the help of an assistant and hearing gadget.
Some of his famous compositions were made when he was deaf. Beethoven Piano Sonata no 14 in c sharp minor Moonlight 1st mov. Beethoven Piano Concerto no. Beethoven Symphony No. This term is applied to a variety of works for a solo instrument such as keyboard or violin. Below is an excerpt from the 3 movements of the Sonata No. Listen to each phrase of the movement. Exposition - the first part of a composition in sonata form that introduces the theme 2. Development is the middle part of the sonata-allegro form wherein themes are being developed Recapitulation - repeats the theme as they first emerge in the opening exposition To the Illustrator: Add a diagram to show parts of sonata allegro and sonata CONCERTO Concerto is a multi-movement work designed for an instrumental soloist and orchestra.
It is a classical form of music intended primarily to emphasize the individuality of the solo instrument and to exhibit the virtuosity and interpretative abilities of the performer. The solo instruments in classical concertos include violin, cello, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, horn and piano. A concerto has three movements: fast, slow, and fast. The music was mostly of a simple yet pleasant character, while the singing was highly flexible and sensitive and could freely express emotion through melody.
It is a classical music for the whole orchestra, generally in four movements. The Opera Seria serious opera usually implies heroic or tragic drama that employs mythological characters, which was inherited from the Baroque period. The Opera Buffa comic opera from Italy made use of everyday characters and situations, and typically employed spoken dialogues, lengthy arias and was spiced with sight gags, naughty humor and social satire. The activities will also help you develop your ability to analyze music through listening.
The music of the Classical era has a lighter and clearer texture. It is mainly homophonic. The melody is simple and easy to remember. There is extensive use of dynamics; phrases are very regular and of the same length. Listening to Classical music might not be your choice because most of you would rather sing songs or listen to music which for you would give enjoyment and would make you feel good. But without you knowing it, sometimes you are already actually singing or listening to Classical music. What is the meter? What is the tempo? What dynamics were used? Reflection Questions: for group sharing 1.
Describe the melody. Is this music familiar to you? Where did you first hear it? Listen to each selected music from the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical period 2. Describe each musical piece 3. In the chart next page, put a check in the box of the corresponding characteristic element Handel HalleluiaChorus L. Describe and differentiate the elements of the 3 compositions. Which music is familiar to you? Where did you hear it? Among the three compositions, which did you like the most? Divide yourselves into 4 groups 2.
Listen to the given composition 3. Identify whether it is a Sonata, a Concerto or a Symphony 4. Choose your group representative who will write the answer on the board 5. Each correct answer is equivalent to 1 point. Additional 1 point will be given to your group if you will be able to identify the title and another 1 point for the name of the composer 6. The group with the highest score wins the game. Reflection: for group sharing 1. Which among the compositions are you familiar with? How were you able to determine whether the music is a Sonata, a Concerto or a Symphony?
Which do you prefer: listening to classical music or to pop music? Listen to Eine Kleine Nachtmusik by W. Mozart 2. As you listen to the music, follow the musical score on the next page opt. Each measure has a number on top of the staff. Encircle the measure where the exposition, development and recapitulation starts and ends. During that time most of the members of the nobility would financially support the musicians. Music was played in the courts which make the music of the classical era more familiar to the nobility than the lower classes.
This association of the rich and Classical music is still being experienced in some parts of the world. However, with the dawn of radio and TV, classical music may now be experienced by the masses. What is the movie all about? Who are the main characters? When and where was the story set?
Who is your favorite character in the movie? What part of the film did you like best? Analyze the use of music in the film. What did you learn from the story? The given activities here will also give you a chance to show and enhance your talents through composition and performance. You will be divided into 4 groups. Each group will be assigned to advertise a product of your own choice wherein classical music will be used as background music. You will perform in front of the class. Criteria for grading: 1. Each group will create an original story and turn it into a song by adapting a tune or music of their choice of the Classical era.
You can create or improvise an instrumental or rhythmic accompaniment for your song. You will be divided into 3 groups. Each group will create a short musical production 30 minutes on either the life of Haydn, Mozart or Beethoven. Your group can create or improvise an instrumental accompaniment. Singing Voice quality Good singing voice and sing in tune Good singing voice but sometimes not in tune Can sing but has a hard time following the tune Cannot sing but can hum a few lines Cannot sing at all 3. Dancing Grace and Synchronization Can dance well and in synch with the music Can dance and in synch with the music Can dance but sometimes not in synch with the music Can dance but not in synch with the music Can hardly dance 4.
Each group will create a short poem with a theme on the Classical Era opt. Your group will recite or rap the poem and use music of the Classical Period as your accompaniment. Singing Voice quality Good singing voice and singing in tune Good singing voice but sometimes out of tune Can sing but has a hard time following the tune Cannot sing but can hum a few lines Cannot sing at all 3. Classical music refers to the period from During this period, different instrumental forms of music were developed.
These were sonata, concerto and symphony. GLOSSARY Alberti Bass - a special type of broken chord accompaniment where the chord is played in this order: lowest note - highest note - middle note - highest note then repeats the pattern to create a smooth, sustained, flowing sound Allegro - quickly, in a brisk lively manner Andante - in a moderately slow tempo Cadenza - an improvised passage or ornamentation performed by a soloist or group of soloists that allows a display of virtuosity often placed near the end of a piece.
Cantata - a choral composition with instrumental accompaniment, typically in several movements. Classical era - the period from called the Age of Reason. Concerto - a major instrumental work for solo instrument with orchestral accompaniment Crescendo - gradually becoming louder Diminuendo - gradually becoming softer Development - middle part of the sonata-allegro form wherein themes are being developed Exposition - the first part of a composition that introduces the themes that will be developed through the piece Homophonic - a melody accompanied by chords Minuet - a slow, stately ballroom dance for two in triple time.
Opera - a drama set to music Opera buffa - opera in Italy that is full of fun and frivolity Opera comique - comic opera in France, Opera Seria - an opera based on a serious plot that usually revolves around mythological beings such as gods and goddesses Recapitulation - a part of a musical piece, found usually near the end, that repeats the earlier themes Rondo - a musical form that alternates the main theme and its contrasting themes usually found in the final movement of a sonata or concerto Scherzo - a vigorous, light, or playful composition comprising a movement in a symphony or sonata.
Singspiel - 18th century German musical comedy featuring songs and ensembles interspersed with dialogue. Sonata - any instrumental composition that has several movements with variation in key, mood, or tempo Symphony - a musical composition for the whole orchestra generally in four movements; also a sonata for orchestra. Quezon City: St. Bernadette Publishing House Corporation.
Wright, Craig. The Essential Listening to Music, 6th ed.. Canada: Schirmer Cengage Learning. Listening to Music, 5th ed.. Belmont, CA. Mozart Piano Sonata No. Mozart Piano concerto n. Mozart, Symphony No. Beethoven Piano Sonata no 14 in c sharp minor Moonlight 1st movement op. Time allotment: 8 hours Composers and artists believed in letting their imagination and passion be seen through their works.
Program music became the main form of instrumental compositions which is evident in concert overtures, Program symphonies, symphonic poems and incidental music. Program music is a form that portrays an idea or relays a story to the audience. Short piano pieces in ABA form that shows emotion were developed during this period.
As the century progressed, music became increasingly available and popular among the middle class. Concert halls provided venues for musical performances, and instrumental music was available to a wide audience. Nationalism is reflected in most of the music of the Romantic era.
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In the previous historical periods, composers borrowed musical styles from Germany, Italy, and France. Read the questions carefully and choose the correct answer. Frederick Chopin wrote most of his music for the following instrument. Violin b. Flute c. Piano d. Orchestra 2. Being patriotic b. Pride for another country or culture 3. Name the composer who bridged the Classical Period to the Romantic Period.
Bach b. Bruckner c. Berlioz d. Beethoven 4. Which of these is not a characteristic of the romantic period? A freedom in writing and designing an intense personal expression of self-emotion b. Has a rich variety of piece types c. Has a shape and unity of the theme d. The textures are more expressive e. None of the above 5. Which one of the following is not a type of Program music? Song cycle c. Concert overture b. Symphonic poem d. Incidental music II. Identify the composers of the Romantic period from each column. The Rose Tree. Running to Paradise.
The Sad Shepherd. Sailing to Byzantium. The Scholars. The Second Coming. September Sixteen Dead Men. The Song of the Happy Shepherd. The Song of Wandering Aengus. The Sorrow of Love. There Is a Queen in China. The Thorn Tree. Three Songs to the Same Tune. To a Child Dancing in the Wind. To a Child Dancing upon the Shore. To a Shade. To an Isle in the Water. To Ireland in the Coming Times. To the Rose upon the Rood of Time. The Tower. The Two Kings. Under Ben Bulben.
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When Helen Lived. When You Are Old. The Wild Swans at Coole. The Witch. Show More. A Word from Mr. Anti-Love Poems. For breakups, heartache, and unrequited love. Read More. Poems of Anxiety and Uncertainty. Confronting and coping with unchartered terrains through poetry. Poems to integrate into your English Language Arts classroom.
Summer Poems. Christmas Poems. Classic and contemporary poems for the holiday season. Love Poems from Poetry Magazine. Poems for when everyone is Irish for one day. War Poetry. Aedh Wishes for the Cloths of Heaven. From Audio Poem of the Day May Prose from Poetry Magazine.
By Roger Ebert. A late film critic on his longstanding love of poetry. Appeared in Poetry Magazine Bad Ideas.
From Poem Talk May Drinking Poetry. From Poetry Off the Shelf January Jeff Gordinier and Rosie Schapp discuss poetry over a few cocktails. From Audio Poem of the Day March The Imaginative Man. By Laura C. Article for Students. In the Beginning Is the Relation. By Edward Hirsch. Appeared in Poetry Magazine Interior Music. By Clive James.
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By Austin Allen. Why Auden is as essential to our times as Orwell. A Prayer for My Daugher. From Audio Poem of the Day June By Anne Stevenson. Appeared in Poetry Magazine Walking on Knives. By Ange Mlinko. The Collected Poems of Denise Levertov , ed. Lacey and Anne Dewey. From Audio Poem of the Day February From Favorite Poem Project. Read by Samantha Kyrkostas and Dr. Charles A. Whole Earth Poem Catalog. By Jessica Greenbaum. Is there any blank space left for a new poem, old subjects?
Poem Sampler. William Butler Yeats The different sides of Ireland's most famous poet. Poem Guide. How the conflict of a nation was captured by a politically reluctant poet. Fischer Unwin, Bullen, Poems, T. Fisher Unwin, , revised editions, , , , Cass, Cathleen ni Houlihan one-act play; first produced in Dublin at St. Teresa's Hall April 2, , A. Ideas of Good and Evil nonfiction , Macmillan, Poems, , A. Bullen London , The Poetical Works of William B.
Yeats, two volumes, Macmillan, , revised edition, Poems: Second Series, A. Harold Paget, , enlarged edition, Macmillan, The Cutting of an Agate nonfiction , Macmillan, , enlarged edition, Poems Written in Discouragement, , Cuala Press, Bullen, , Macmillan, A Selection from the Poetry of W.
Yeats, Bernard Tauchnitz, A Selection from the Love Poetry of W. Yeats, Cuala Press, The methods for creating poetic rhythm vary across languages and between poetic traditions. Languages are often described as having timing set primarily by accents , syllables , or moras , depending on how rhythm is established, though a language can be influenced by multiple approaches.
Japanese is a mora -timed language. Stress-timed languages include English , Russian and, generally, German. Languages can rely on either pitch or tone. Some languages with a pitch accent are Vedic Sanskrit or Ancient Greek. Tonal languages include Chinese, Vietnamese and most Subsaharan languages. Metrical rhythm generally involves precise arrangements of stresses or syllables into repeated patterns called feet within a line.
In Modern English verse the pattern of stresses primarily differentiate feet, so rhythm based on meter in Modern English is most often founded on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables alone or elided. The chief device of ancient Hebrew Biblical poetry , including many of the psalms , was parallelism , a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three. Parallelism lent itself to antiphonal or call-and-response performance, which could also be reinforced by intonation.
Thus, Biblical poetry relies much less on metrical feet to create rhythm, but instead creates rhythm based on much larger sound units of lines, phrases and sentences.
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Certain forms of poetry placed constraints on which syllables were required to be level and which oblique. The formal patterns of meter used in Modern English verse to create rhythm no longer dominate contemporary English poetry. In the case of free verse , rhythm is often organized based on looser units of cadence rather than a regular meter. Robinson Jeffers , Marianne Moore , and William Carlos Williams are three notable poets who reject the idea that regular accentual meter is critical to English poetry. In the Western poetic tradition, meters are customarily grouped according to a characteristic metrical foot and the number of feet per line.
This metric system originated in ancient Greek poetry , and was used by poets such as Pindar and Sappho , and by the great tragedians of Athens. Similarly, " dactylic hexameter ", comprises six feet per line, of which the dominant kind of foot is the " dactyl ". Dactylic hexameter was the traditional meter of Greek epic poetry , the earliest extant examples of which are the works of Homer and Hesiod. There are a wide range of names for other types of feet, right up to a choriamb , a four syllable metric foot with a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables and closing with a stressed syllable.
The choriamb is derived from some ancient Greek and Latin poetry. Each of these types of feet has a certain "feel," whether alone or in combination with other feet. The iamb, for example, is the most natural form of rhythm in the English language, and generally produces a subtle but stable verse.
There is debate over how useful a multiplicity of different "feet" is in describing meter. For example, Robert Pinsky has argued that while dactyls are important in classical verse, English dactylic verse uses dactyls very irregularly and can be better described based on patterns of iambs and anapests, feet which he considers natural to the language. Vladimir Nabokov noted that overlaid on top of the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of verse was a separate pattern of accents resulting from the natural pitch of the spoken words, and suggested that the term "scud" be used to distinguish an unaccented stress from an accented stress.
Different traditions and genres of poetry tend to use different meters, ranging from the Shakespearean iambic pentameter and the Homeric dactylic hexameter to the anapestic tetrameter used in many nursery rhymes. However, a number of variations to the established meter are common, both to provide emphasis or attention to a given foot or line and to avoid boring repetition. For example, the stress in a foot may be inverted, a caesura or pause may be added sometimes in place of a foot or stress , or the final foot in a line may be given a feminine ending to soften it or be replaced by a spondee to emphasize it and create a hard stop.
Some patterns such as iambic pentameter tend to be fairly regular, while other patterns, such as dactylic hexameter, tend to be highly irregular. In addition, different patterns often develop distinctively in different languages, so that, for example, iambic tetrameter in Russian will generally reflect a regularity in the use of accents to reinforce the meter, which does not occur, or occurs to a much lesser extent, in English.
Rhyme, alliteration, assonance and consonance are ways of creating repetitive patterns of sound. They may be used as an independent structural element in a poem, to reinforce rhythmic patterns, or as an ornamental element. For example, Chaucer used heavy alliteration to mock Old English verse and to paint a character as archaic.
Rhyme consists of identical "hard-rhyme" or similar "soft-rhyme" sounds placed at the ends of lines or at predictable locations within lines " internal rhyme ". Languages vary in the richness of their rhyming structures; Italian, for example, has a rich rhyming structure permitting maintenance of a limited set of rhymes throughout a lengthy poem.
The richness results from word endings that follow regular forms. English, with its irregular word endings adopted from other languages, is less rich in rhyme. Alliteration is the repetition of letters or letter-sounds at the beginning of two or more words immediately succeeding each other, or at short intervals; or the recurrence of the same letter in accented parts of words. Alliteration and assonance played a key role in structuring early Germanic, Norse and Old English forms of poetry.
The alliterative patterns of early Germanic poetry interweave meter and alliteration as a key part of their structure, so that the metrical pattern determines when the listener expects instances of alliteration to occur. This can be compared to an ornamental use of alliteration in most Modern European poetry, where alliterative patterns are not formal or carried through full stanzas. Alliteration is particularly useful in languages with less rich rhyming structures. Assonance, where the use of similar vowel sounds within a word rather than similar sounds at the beginning or end of a word, was widely used in skaldic poetry but goes back to the Homeric epic.
Consonance provokes a more subtle effect than alliteration and so is less useful as a structural element. In many languages, including modern European languages and Arabic, poets use rhyme in set patterns as a structural element for specific poetic forms, such as ballads , sonnets and rhyming couplets. However, the use of structural rhyme is not universal even within the European tradition. Much modern poetry avoids traditional rhyme schemes.
Classical Greek and Latin poetry did not use rhyme.
Some forms of poetry carry a consistent and well-defined rhyming scheme, such as the chant royal or the rubaiyat , while other poetic forms have variable rhyme schemes. Most rhyme schemes are described using letters that correspond to sets of rhymes, so if the first, second and fourth lines of a quatrain rhyme with each other and the third line do not rhyme, the quatrain is said to have an "aa-ba" rhyme scheme.
This rhyme scheme is the one used, for example, in the rubaiyat form. Poetic form is more flexible in modernist and post-modernist poetry and continues to be less structured than in previous literary eras. Many modern poets eschew recognizable structures or forms and write in free verse. But poetry remains distinguished from prose by its form; some regard for basic formal structures of poetry will be found in even the best free verse, however much such structures may appear to have been ignored. Among major structural elements used in poetry are the line, the stanza or verse paragraph , and larger combinations of stanzas or lines such as cantos.
Also sometimes used are broader visual presentations of words and calligraphy. These basic units of poetic form are often combined into larger structures, called poetic forms or poetic modes see the following section , as in the sonnet or haiku. Poetry is often separated into lines on a page, in a process known as lineation. These lines may be based on the number of metrical feet or may emphasize a rhyming pattern at the ends of lines. Lines may serve other functions, particularly where the poem is not written in a formal metrical pattern.
Lines can separate, compare or contrast thoughts expressed in different units, or can highlight a change in tone. Lines of poems are often organized into stanzas , which are denominated by the number of lines included. Thus a collection of two lines is a couplet or distich , three lines a triplet or tercet , four lines a quatrain , and so on. These lines may or may not relate to each other by rhyme or rhythm. For example, a couplet may be two lines with identical meters which rhyme or two lines held together by a common meter alone.
Other poems may be organized into verse paragraphs , in which regular rhymes with established rhythms are not used, but the poetic tone is instead established by a collection of rhythms, alliterations, and rhymes established in paragraph form.
In many forms of poetry, stanzas are interlocking, so that the rhyming scheme or other structural elements of one stanza determine those of succeeding stanzas. Examples of such interlocking stanzas include, for example, the ghazal and the villanelle , where a refrain or, in the case of the villanelle, refrains is established in the first stanza which then repeats in subsequent stanzas.
Related to the use of interlocking stanzas is their use to separate thematic parts of a poem. For example, the strophe , antistrophe and epode of the ode form are often separated into one or more stanzas. In some cases, particularly lengthier formal poetry such as some forms of epic poetry, stanzas themselves are constructed according to strict rules and then combined. In addition to two or three alliterations, the odd-numbered lines had partial rhyme of consonants with dissimilar vowels, not necessarily at the beginning of the word; the even lines contained internal rhyme in set syllables not necessarily at the end of the word.
Each half-line had exactly six syllables, and each line ended in a trochee. Even before the advent of printing, the visual appearance of poetry often added meaning or depth. Acrostic poems conveyed meanings in the initial letters of lines or in letters at other specific places in a poem. With the advent of printing , poets gained greater control over the mass-produced visual presentations of their work. Visual elements have become an important part of the poet's toolbox, and many poets have sought to use visual presentation for a wide range of purposes.
Some Modernist poets have made the placement of individual lines or groups of lines on the page an integral part of the poem's composition. At times, this complements the poem's rhythm through visual caesuras of various lengths, or creates juxtapositions so as to accentuate meaning, ambiguity or irony , or simply to create an aesthetically pleasing form.
In its most extreme form, this can lead to concrete poetry or asemic writing. Poetic diction treats the manner in which language is used, and refers not only to the sound but also to the underlying meaning and its interaction with sound and form. Poetic diction can include rhetorical devices such as simile and metaphor , as well as tones of voice, such as irony.
Aristotle wrote in the Poetics that "the greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor. Allegorical stories are central to the poetic diction of many cultures, and were prominent in the West during classical times, the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Aesop's Fables , repeatedly rendered in both verse and prose since first being recorded about BCE, are perhaps the richest single source of allegorical poetry through the ages.
Rather than being fully allegorical, however, a poem may contain symbols or allusions that deepen the meaning or effect of its words without constructing a full allegory. Another element of poetic diction can be the use of vivid imagery for effect. The juxtaposition of unexpected or impossible images is, for example, a particularly strong element in surrealist poetry and haiku. Many poetic dictions use repetitive phrases for effect, either a short phrase such as Homer's "rosy-fingered dawn" or "the wine-dark sea" or a longer refrain.
Such repetition can add a somber tone to a poem, or can be laced with irony as the context of the words changes. Specific poetic forms have been developed by many cultures. In more developed, closed or "received" poetic forms, the rhyming scheme, meter and other elements of a poem are based on sets of rules, ranging from the relatively loose rules that govern the construction of an elegy to the highly formalized structure of the ghazal or villanelle. Additional forms of poetry may be found in the discussions of the poetry of particular cultures or periods and in the glossary.
Among the most common forms of poetry, popular from the Late Middle Ages on, is the sonnet, which by the 13th century had become standardized as fourteen lines following a set rhyme scheme and logical structure. By the 14th century and the Italian Renaissance , the form had further crystallized under the pen of Petrarch , whose sonnets were translated in the 16th century by Sir Thomas Wyatt , who is credited with introducing the sonnet form into English literature.
By convention, sonnets in English typically use iambic pentameter , while in the Romance languages , the hendecasyllable and Alexandrine are the most widely used meters. Sonnets of all types often make use of a volta , or "turn," a point in the poem at which an idea is turned on its head, a question is answered or introduced , or the subject matter is further complicated.
This volta can often take the form of a "but" statement contradicting or complicating the content of the earlier lines. In the Petrarchan sonnet, the turn tends to fall around the division between the first two quatrains and the sestet, while English sonnets usually place it at or near the beginning of the closing couplet.
Sonnets are particularly associated with high poetic diction, vivid imagery, and romantic love, largely due to the influence of Petrarch as well as of early English practitioners such as Edmund Spenser who gave his name to the Spenserian sonnet , Michael Drayton , and Shakespeare, whose sonnets are among the most famous in English poetry, with twenty being included in the Oxford Book of English Verse. Further, postmodern authors such as Ted Berrigan and John Berryman have challenged the traditional definitions of the sonnet form, rendering entire sequences of "sonnets" that often lack rhyme, a clear logical progression, or even a consistent count of fourteen lines.
In all cases, rhyming is obligatory. The Yuefu is a folk ballad or a poem written in the folk ballad style, and the number of lines and the length of the lines could be irregular. For the other variations of shi poetry, generally either a four line quatrain, or jueju or else an eight-line poem is normal; either way with the even numbered lines rhyming. The line length is scanned by an according number of characters according to the convention that one character equals one syllable , and are predominantly either five or seven characters long, with a caesura before the final three syllables.
The lines are generally end-stopped, considered as a series of couplets, and exhibit verbal parallelism as a key poetic device. Among its other rules, the jintishi rules regulate the tonal variations within a poem, including the use of set patterns of the four tones of Middle Chinese. The basic form of jintishi sushi has eight lines in four couplets, with parallelism between the lines in the second and third couplets.
The couplets with parallel lines contain contrasting content but an identical grammatical relationship between words. Jintishi often have a rich poetic diction, full of allusion , and can have a wide range of subject, including history and politics. The villanelle is a nineteen-line poem made up of five triplets with a closing quatrain; the poem is characterized by having two refrains, initially used in the first and third lines of the first stanza, and then alternately used at the close of each subsequent stanza until the final quatrain, which is concluded by the two refrains.
The remaining lines of the poem have an a-b alternating rhyme. Auden ,  and Elizabeth Bishop. A limerick is a poem that consists of five lines and is often humorous. Rhythm is very important in limericks for the first, second and fifth lines must have seven to ten syllables. However, the third and fourth lines only need five to seven. All of the lines must rhyme and have the same rhythm. Tanka is a form of unrhymed Japanese poetry , with five sections totalling 31 onji phonological units identical to morae , structured in a pattern.
Tanka were written as early as the Asuka period by such poets as Kakinomoto no Hitomaro fl. By the tenth century, tanka had become the dominant form of Japanese poetry, to the point where the originally general term waka "Japanese poetry" came to be used exclusively for tanka.
Tanka are still widely written today. Haiku is a popular form of unrhymed Japanese poetry, which evolved in the 17th century from the hokku , or opening verse of a renku. Traditionally, haiku contain a kireji , or cutting word, usually placed at the end of one of the poem's three sections, and a kigo , or season-word. An example of his writing: . This was likely derived from when the Thai language had three tones as opposed to today's five, a split which occurred during the Ayutthaya Kingdom period , two of which corresponded directly to the aforementioned marks.
It is usually regarded as an advanced and sophisticated poetic form. The two differ in the number of syllables in the second wak of the final bat and inter-stanza rhyming rules. It has four bat per stanza si translates as four. The first wak of each bat has five syllables. The second wak has two or four syllables in the first and third bat , two syllables in the second, and four syllables in the fourth.
Mai ek is required for seven syllables and Mai tho is required for four, as shown below. Odes were first developed by poets writing in ancient Greek, such as Pindar , and Latin, such as Horace. Forms of odes appear in many of the cultures that were influenced by the Greeks and Latins. The antistrophes of the ode possess similar metrical structures and, depending on the tradition, similar rhyme structures.
In contrast, the epode is written with a different scheme and structure. Odes have a formal poetic diction and generally deal with a serious subject. The strophe and antistrophe look at the subject from different, often conflicting, perspectives, with the epode moving to a higher level to either view or resolve the underlying issues. Odes are often intended to be recited or sung by two choruses or individuals , with the first reciting the strophe, the second the antistrophe, and both together the epode.
One non-Western form which resembles the ode is the qasida in Persian poetry. The ghazal also ghazel, gazel, gazal, or gozol is a form of poetry common in Arabic , Persian , Urdu and Bengali poetry. In classic form, the ghazal has from five to fifteen rhyming couplets that share a refrain at the end of the second line. This refrain may be of one or several syllables and is preceded by a rhyme. Each line has an identical meter.
The ghazal often reflects on a theme of unattainable love or divinity. As with other forms with a long history in many languages, many variations have been developed, including forms with a quasi-musical poetic diction in Urdu.watch
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The relatively steady meter and the use of the refrain produce an incantatory effect, which complements Sufi mystical themes well. His life and poems have been the subject of much analysis, commentary and interpretation, influencing post-fourteenth century Persian writing more than any other author. In addition to specific forms of poems, poetry is often thought of in terms of different genres and subgenres. A poetic genre is generally a tradition or classification of poetry based on the subject matter, style, or other broader literary characteristics.
Others view the study of genres as the study of how different works relate and refer to other works. Narrative poetry is a genre of poetry that tells a story. Broadly it subsumes epic poetry , but the term "narrative poetry" is often reserved for smaller works, generally with more appeal to human interest. Narrative poetry may be the oldest type of poetry. Many scholars of Homer have concluded that his Iliad and Odyssey were composed of compilations of shorter narrative poems that related individual episodes.
Much narrative poetry—such as Scottish and English ballads , and Baltic and Slavic heroic poems—is performance poetry with roots in a preliterate oral tradition. It has been speculated that some features that distinguish poetry from prose, such as meter, alliteration and kennings , once served as memory aids for bards who recited traditional tales.
Lyric poetry is a genre that, unlike epic and dramatic poetry, does not attempt to tell a story but instead is of a more personal nature. Poems in this genre tend to be shorter, melodic, and contemplative. Rather than depicting characters and actions, it portrays the poet's own feelings , states of mind , and perceptions. Vincent Millay. Epic poetry is a genre of poetry, and a major form of narrative literature.
This genre is often defined as lengthy poems concerning events of a heroic or important nature to the culture of the time.
Related Poetic Tone-Picture in B-flat Major - No. 2 from Six Poetic Tone-Pictures Op. 3
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