The Gothic novel , beginning with Horace Walpole 's The Castle of Otranto , was an important precursor of one strain of Romanticism, with a delight in horror and threat, and exotic picturesque settings, matched in Walpole's case by his role in the early revival of Gothic architecture. Tristram Shandy , a novel by Laurence Sterne —67 , introduced a whimsical version of the anti-rational sentimental novel to the English literary public.
An early German influence came from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , whose novel The Sorrows of Young Werther had young men throughout Europe emulating its protagonist, a young artist with a very sensitive and passionate temperament. At that time Germany was a multitude of small separate states, and Goethe's works would have a seminal influence in developing a unifying sense of nationalism. Heidelberg later became a center of German Romanticism, where writers and poets such as Clemens Brentano , Achim von Arnim , and Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts met regularly in literary circles.
Important motifs in German Romanticism are travelling, nature, for example the German Forest , and Germanic myths. The later German Romanticism of, for example E. The significance to Romanticism of childhood innocence, the importance of imagination, and racial theories all combined to give an unprecedented importance to folk literature , non-classical mythology and children's literature , above all in Germany. Brentano and von Arnim were significant literary figures who together published Des Knaben Wunderhorn "The Boy's Magic Horn" or cornucopia , a collection of versified folk tales, in — One of the brothers, Jacob , published in Deutsche Mythologie , a long academic work on Germanic mythology.
The publication in of Lyrical Ballads , with many of the finest poems by Wordsworth and Coleridge, is often held to mark the start of the movement. The majority of the poems were by Wordsworth, and many dealt with the lives of the poor in his native Lake District , or his feelings about nature—which he more fully developed in his long poem The Prelude , never published in his lifetime.
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The longest poem in the volume was Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner , which showed the Gothic side of English Romanticism, and the exotic settings that many works featured. In the period when they were writing, the Lake Poets were widely regarded as a marginal group of radicals, though they were supported by the critic and writer William Hazlitt and others. In contrast, Lord Byron and Walter Scott achieved enormous fame and influence throughout Europe with works exploiting the violence and drama of their exotic and historical settings; Goethe called Byron "undoubtedly the greatest genius of our century".
Both were set in the distant Scottish past, already evoked in Ossian ; Romanticism and Scotland were to have a long and fruitful partnership. Byron had equal success with the first part of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage in , followed by four "Turkish tales", all in the form of long poems, starting with The Giaour in , drawing from his Grand Tour , which had reached Ottoman Europe, and orientalizing the themes of the Gothic novel in verse. These featured different variations of the " Byronic hero ", and his own life contributed a further version.
Scott meanwhile was effectively inventing the historical novel , beginning in with Waverley , set in the Jacobite rising , which was an enormous and highly profitable success, followed by over 20 further Waverley Novels over the next 17 years, with settings going back to the Crusades that he had researched to a degree that was new in literature. In contrast to Germany, Romanticism in English literature had little connection with nationalism, and the Romantics were often regarded with suspicion for the sympathy many felt for the ideals of the French Revolution , whose collapse and replacement with the dictatorship of Napoleon was, as elsewhere in Europe, a shock to the movement.
Though his novels celebrated Scottish identity and history, Scott was politically a firm Unionist, but admitted to Jacobite sympathies. Several spent much time abroad, and a famous stay on Lake Geneva with Byron and Shelley in produced the hugely influential novel Frankenstein by Shelley's wife-to-be Mary Shelley and the novella The Vampyre by Byron's doctor John William Polidori.
The lyrics of Robert Burns in Scotland, and Thomas Moore from Ireland, reflected in different ways their countries and the Romantic interest in folk literature, but neither had a fully Romantic approach to life or their work. Byron is now most highly regarded for his short lyrics and his generally unromantic prose writings, especially his letters, and his unfinished satire Don Juan. Wordsworth was by respectable and highly regarded, holding a government sinecure , but wrote relatively little.
In the discussion of English literature, the Romantic period is often regarded as finishing around the s, or sometimes even earlier, although many authors of the succeeding decades were no less committed to Romantic values. The most significant novelist in English during the peak Romantic period, other than Walter Scott, was Jane Austen , whose essentially conservative world-view had little in common with her Romantic contemporaries, retaining a strong belief in decorum and social rules, though critics such as Claudia L. Johnson have detected tremors under the surface of many works, such as Northanger Abbey , Mansfield Park and Persuasion While these two novels were written and published after the Romantic period is said to have ended, their novels were heavily influenced by Romantic literature they'd read as children.
Byron, Keats and Shelley all wrote for the stage, but with little success in England, with Shelley's The Cenci perhaps the best work produced, though that was not played in a public theatre in England until a century after his death. Byron's plays, along with dramatizations of his poems and Scott's novels, were much more popular on the Continent, and especially in France, and through these versions several were turned into operas, many still performed today.
If contemporary poets had little success on the stage, the period was a legendary one for performances of Shakespeare , and went some way to restoring his original texts and removing the Augustan "improvements" to them. The greatest actor of the period, Edmund Kean , restored the tragic ending to King Lear ;  Coleridge said that, "Seeing him act was like reading Shakespeare by flashes of lightning.
Although after union with England in Scotland increasingly adopted English language and wider cultural norms, its literature developed a distinct national identity and began to enjoy an international reputation. Allan Ramsay — laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, helping to develop the Habbie stanza as a poetic form.
Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard Ossian , he published translations that acquired international popularity, being proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical epics. Fingal , written in , was speedily translated into many European languages, and its appreciation of natural beauty and treatment of the ancient legend has been credited more than any single work with bringing about the Romantic movement in European, and especially in German literature, through its influence on Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Robert Burns —96 and Walter Scott — were highly influenced by the Ossian cycle. Burns, an Ayrshire poet and lyricist, is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland and a major influence on the Romantic movement. His poem and song " Auld Lang Syne " is often sung at Hogmanay the last day of the year , and " Scots Wha Hae " served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country. His first prose work, Waverley in , is often called the first historical novel.
Scott probably did more than any other figure to define and popularise Scottish cultural identity in the nineteenth century. Scotland was also the location of two of the most important literary magazines of the era, The Edinburgh Review founded in and Blackwood's Magazine founded in , which had a major impact on the development of British literature and drama in the era of Romanticism. Scottish "national drama" emerged in the early s, as plays with specifically Scottish themes began to dominate the Scottish stage. Theatres had been discouraged by the Church of Scotland and fears of Jacobite assemblies.
In the later eighteenth century, many plays were written for and performed by small amateur companies and were not published and so most have been lost. Towards the end of the century there were " closet dramas ", primarily designed to be read, rather than performed, including work by Scott, Hogg, Galt and Joanna Baillie — , often influenced by the ballad tradition and Gothic Romanticism.
Romanticism was relatively late in developing in French literature , more so than in the visual arts. After the Bourbon Restoration , French Romanticism developed in the lively world of Parisian theatre , with productions of Shakespeare , Schiller in France a key Romantic author , and adaptations of Scott and Byron alongside French authors, several of whom began to write in the late s. Cliques of pro- and anti-Romantics developed, and productions were often accompanied by raucous vocalizing by the two sides, including the shouted assertion by one theatregoer in that "Shakespeare, c'est l'aide-de-camp de Wellington" "Shakespeare is Wellington 's aide-de-camp ".
Victor Hugo published as a poet in the s before achieving success on the stage with Hernani —a historical drama in a quasi-Shakespearian style that had famously riotous performances on its first run in The preface to his unperformed play "Cromwell" gives an important manifesto of French Romanticism, stating that "there are no rules, or models". Alfred de Vigny remains best known as a dramatist, with his play on the life of the English poet Chatterton perhaps his best work. George Sand was a central figure of the Parisian literary scene, famous both for her novels and criticism and her affairs with Chopin and several others;  she too was inspired by the theatre, and wrote works to be staged at her private estate.
Stendhal is today probably the most highly regarded French novelist of the period, but he stands in a complex relation with Romanticism, and is notable for his penetrating psychological insight into his characters and his realism, qualities rarely prominent in Romantic fiction. As a survivor of the French retreat from Moscow in , fantasies of heroism and adventure had little appeal for him, and like Goya he is often seen as a forerunner of Realism. Romanticism in Poland is often taken to begin with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz 's first poems in , and end with the crushing of the January Uprising of against the Russians.
It was strongly marked by interest in Polish history. This close connection between Polish Romanticism and Polish history became one of the defining qualities of the literature of Polish Romanticism period, differentiating it from that of other countries. They had not suffered the loss of national statehood as was the case with Poland.
The Polish intelligentsia, along with leading members of its government, left Poland in the early s, during what is referred to as the " Great Emigration ", resettling in France, Germany, Great Britain, Turkey, and the United States. Their art featured emotionalism and irrationality , fantasy and imagination, personality cults, folklore and country life, and the propagation of ideals of freedom. In the second period, many of the Polish Romantics worked abroad, often banished from Poland by the occupying powers due to their politically subversive ideas.
Their work became increasingly dominated by the ideals of political struggle for freedom and their country's sovereignty. Elements of mysticism became more prominent. There developed the idea of the poeta wieszcz the prophet. The wieszcz bard functioned as spiritual leader to the nation fighting for its independence. The most notable poet so recognized was Adam Mickiewicz. Unlike his predecessors, who called for victory at whatever price in Poland's struggle against Russia, Krasinski emphasized Poland's spiritual role in its fight for independence, advocating an intellectual rather than a military superiority.
Pushkin's work influenced many writers in the 19th century and led to his eventual recognition as Russia's greatest poet.
Influenced heavily by Lord Byron, Lermontov sought to explore the Romantic emphasis on metaphysical discontent with society and self, while Tyutchev's poems often described scenes of nature or passions of love. Tyutchev commonly operated with such categories as night and day, north and south, dream and reality, cosmos and chaos, and the still world of winter and spring teeming with life. Baratynsky's style was fairly classical in nature, dwelling on the models of the previous century.
Romanticism in Spanish literature developed a well-known literature with a huge variety of poets and playwrights. Spanish Romanticism also influenced regional literatures. There are scholars who consider Spanish Romanticism to be Proto-Existentialism because it is more anguished than the movement in other European countries.
Foster et al.
In the theatre of romanticism : coleridge, nationalism, women
According to Richard Caldwell, the writers that we now identify with Spain's romanticism were actually precursors to those who galvanized the literary movement that emerged in the s. Alexandre, bishop of Angra , in the precepts of Neoclassicism , which can be observed in his early work. Almeida Garrett had participated in the Liberal Revolution , which caused him to exile himself in England in and then in France, after the Vila-Francada.
He was also deeply interested in Portuguese folkloric verse, which resulted in the publication of Romanceiro "Traditional Portuguese Ballads" , that recollect a great number of ancient popular ballads, known as "romances" or "rimances", in redondilha maior verse form, that contained stories of chivalry , life of saints , crusades , courtly love , etc. He too was forced to exile to Great Britain and France because of his liberal ideals. All of his poetry and prose are unlike Almeida Garrett's entirely Romantic, rejecting Greco-Roman myth and history. He became an unquestionable master for successive Ultra-Romantic generations, whose influence would not be challenged until the famous Coimbra Question.
He also created polemics by translating Goethe 's Faust without knowing German, but using French versions of the play. An early Portuguese expression of Romanticism is found already in poets such as Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage especially in his sonnets dated at the end of the 18th century and Leonor de Almeida Portugal, Marquise of Alorna.
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Before that date, Ugo Foscolo had already published poems anticipating Romantic themes. His writings were influenced by his hatred for the Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas , and filled with themes of blood and terror, using the metaphor of a slaughterhouse to portray the violence of Rosas' dictatorship.
Brazilian Romanticism is characterized and divided in three different periods. The first one is basically focused on the creation of a sense of national identity, using the ideal of the heroic Indian. The second period, sometimes called Ultra-Romanticism , is marked by a profound influence of European themes and traditions, involving the melancholy, sadness and despair related to unobtainable love.
Goethe and Lord Byron are commonly quoted in these works. American Romantic Gothic literature made an early appearance with Washington Irving 's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle , followed from onwards by the Leatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper , with their emphasis on heroic simplicity and their fervent landscape descriptions of an already-exotic mythicized frontier peopled by " noble savages ", similar to the philosophical theory of Rousseau , exemplified by Uncas , from The Last of the Mohicans.
There are picturesque "local color" elements in Washington Irving's essays and especially his travel books. Edgar Allan Poe 's tales of the macabre and his balladic poetry were more influential in France than at home, but the romantic American novel developed fully with the atmosphere and melodrama of Nathaniel Hawthorne 's The Scarlet Letter Later Transcendentalist writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson still show elements of its influence and imagination, as does the romantic realism of Walt Whitman.
The poetry of Emily Dickinson —nearly unread in her own time—and Herman Melville 's novel Moby-Dick can be taken as epitomes of American Romantic literature. By the s, however, psychological and social realism were competing with Romanticism in the novel.
The European Romantic movement reached America in the early 19th century. American Romanticism was just as multifaceted and individualistic as it was in Europe. Like the Europeans, the American Romantics demonstrated a high level of moral enthusiasm, commitment to individualism and the unfolding of the self, an emphasis on intuitive perception, and the assumption that the natural world was inherently good, while human society was filled with corruption.
Romanticism became popular in American politics, philosophy and art. The movement appealed to the revolutionary spirit of America as well as to those longing to break free of the strict religious traditions of early settlement. The Romantics rejected rationalism and religious intellect.
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It appealed to those in opposition of Calvinism, which includes the belief that the destiny of each individual is preordained. The Romantic movement gave rise to New England Transcendentalism , which portrayed a less restrictive relationship between God and Universe. The new philosophy presented the individual with a more personal relationship with God. Transcendentalism and Romanticism appealed to Americans in a similar fashion, for both privileged feeling over reason, individual freedom of expression over the restraints of tradition and custom. It often involved a rapturous response to nature.
It encouraged the rejection of harsh, rigid Calvinism, and promised a new blossoming of American culture. American Romanticism embraced the individual and rebelled against the confinement of neoclassicism and religious tradition. The Romantic movement in America created a new literary genre that continues to influence American writers.
Novels, short stories, and poems replaced the sermons and manifestos of yore. Romantic literature was personal, intense, and portrayed more emotion than ever seen in neoclassical literature. America's preoccupation with freedom became a great source of motivation for Romantic writers as many were delighted in free expression and emotion without so much fear of ridicule and controversy. They also put more effort into the psychological development of their characters, and the main characters typically displayed extremes of sensitivity and excitement.
The works of the Romantic Era also differed from preceding works in that they spoke to a wider audience, partly reflecting the greater distribution of books as costs came down during the period. Romantic architecture appeared in the late 18th century in a reaction against the rigid forms of neoclassical architecture. It was designed to evoke an emotional reaction, either respect for tradition or nostalgia for a bucolic past.
It was frequently inspired by the architecture of the Middle Ages , especially Gothic architecture , It was strongly influenced by romanticism in literature, particularly the historical novels of Victor Hugo and Walter Scott. It sometimes moved into the domain of eclecticism , with features assembled from different historic periods and regions of the world.
Gothic Revival architecture was a popular variant of the romantic style, particularly in the construction of churches, Cathedrals, and university buildings. The cathedral had been begun in , but work was halted in Schinkel followed the original design as much as possible, but used modern construction technology, including an iron frame for the roof. The building was finished in In Britain, notable examples include the Royal Pavillion in Brighton , a romantic version of traditional Indian architecture by John Nash — , and the Houses of Parliament in London, built in a Gothic revival style by Charles Barry between and In France, one of the earliest examples of romantic architecture is the Hameau de la Reine , the small rustic hamlet created at the Palace of Versailles for Queen Marie Antoinette between and by the royal architect Richard Mique with the help of the romantic painter Hubert Robert.
It consisted of twelve structures, ten of which still exist, in the style of villages in Normandy. It was designed for the Queen and her friends to amuse themselves by playing at being peasants, and included a farmhouse with a dairy, a mill, a boudoir, a pigeon loft, a tower in the form of a lighthouse from which one could fish in the pond, a belvedere, a cascade and grotto, and a luxuriously furnished cottage with a billiard room for the Queen.
The romantic style continued in the second half of the 19th century. The Palais Garnier , the Paris opera house designed by Charles Garnier was a highly romantic and eclectic combination of artistic styles. Hameau de la Reine , Palace of Versailles — Royal Pavilion in Brighton by John Nash — In the visual arts, Romanticism first showed itself in landscape painting , where from as early as the s British artists began to turn to wilder landscapes and storms, and Gothic architecture , even if they had to make do with Wales as a setting.
Caspar David Friedrich and J. Turner were born less than a year apart in and respectively and were to take German and English landscape painting to their extremes of Romanticism, but both their artistic sensibilities were formed when forms of Romanticism was already strongly present in art. John Constable , born in , stayed closer to the English landscape tradition, but in his largest "six-footers" insisted on the heroic status of a patch of the working countryside where he had grown up—challenging the traditional hierarchy of genres , which relegated landscape painting to a low status.
Turner also painted very large landscapes, and above all, seascapes. Some of these large paintings had contemporary settings and staffage , but others had small figures that turned the work into history painting in the manner of Claude Lorrain , like Salvator Rosa , a late Baroque artist whose landscapes had elements that Romantic painters repeatedly turned to. Friedrich often used single figures, or features like crosses, set alone amidst a huge landscape, "making them images of the transitoriness of human life and the premonition of death".
Other groups of artists expressed feelings that verged on the mystical, many largely abandoning classical drawing and proportions. Like Friedrich, none of these artists had significant influence after their deaths for the rest of the 19th century, and were 20th-century rediscoveries from obscurity, though Blake was always known as a poet, and Norway's leading painter Johan Christian Dahl was heavily influenced by Friedrich.
The Rome-based Nazarene movement of German artists, active from , took a very different path, concentrating on medievalizing history paintings with religious and nationalist themes. Girodet's old teacher David was puzzled and disappointed by his pupil's direction, saying: "Either Girodet is mad or I no longer know anything of the art of painting". The second was a scene from the Greek War of Independence, completed the year Byron died there, and the last was a scene from one of Byron's plays. With Shakespeare, Byron was to provide the subject matter for many other works of Delacroix, who also spent long periods in North Africa, painting colourful scenes of mounted Arab warriors.
His Liberty Leading the People remains, with the Medusa , one of the best-known works of French Romantic painting. Both reflected current events, and increasingly " history painting ", literally "story painting", a phrase dating back to the Italian Renaissance meaning the painting of subjects with groups of figures, long considered the highest and most difficult form of art, did indeed become the painting of historical scenes, rather than those from religion or mythology.
In the Theatre of Romanticism: Coleridge, Nationalism, Women (Cambridge Studies in Romanticism)
Francisco Goya was called "the last great painter in whose art thought and observation were balanced and combined to form a faultless unity". In Spain, there was still a struggle to introduce the values of the Enlightenment , in which Goya saw himself as a participant. The demonic and anti-rational monsters thrown up by his imagination are only superficially similar to those of the Gothic fantasies of northern Europe, and in many ways he remained wedded to the classicism and realism of his training, as well as looking forward to the Realism of the later 19th century.
Sculpture remained largely impervious to Romanticism, probably partly for technical reasons, as the most prestigious material of the day, marble, does not lend itself to expansive gestures. The leading sculptors in Europe, Antonio Canova and Bertel Thorvaldsen , were both based in Rome and firm Neoclassicists, not at all tempted to allow influence from medieval sculpture, which would have been one possible approach to Romantic sculpture.
Francisco Goya , The Third of May , In France, historical painting on idealized medieval and Renaissance themes is known as the style Troubadour , a term with no equivalent for other countries, though the same trends occurred there. Romantic scholarship in the last decade of the twentieth century effectively transformed the object of study, bringing not only new attention to women writers and issues of slavery, empire, and colonialism into the field but making slave narratives, antislavery writing, and writing by women in many genres integral to a newly expanded and configured Romantic canon.
At the same time, certain leading descriptions of the older canon, dominated by poetry and a handful of male writers, remained current, especially the notion that Romantic poetry sought transcendence and an ideal realm at the price of denying the body and material nature. The new emphasis on the body and on the embodiment of mind brings together several subfields within Romantic scholarship, including literature and medicine, literature and scientific psychology, ecocriticism, environmental and diet studies, recent developments in colonial discourse studies and feminist criticism, and cognitive and neuroscientific approaches to reading Romanticism.
Volume 1 , Issue 1. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.
Alan Richardson Boston College Search for more papers by this author. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Get access to the full version of this article. View access options below. Dorothy Wordsworth's Journals , ed. There are updated Oxford paperback editions:.
Of the numerous paperback editions of the novels, those in Oxford World's Classics series e. See also the general entry for the novel. An Oxford Handbook to Coleridge with 38 chapters by various contributors is scheduled for publication in There are numerous paperback editions of the Tales from Shakespeare.
Bromwich Romantic Circles hosts a searchable Byron Chronology. Romantic Circles hosts a searchable Shelley Chronology. Numerous texts are also available on the Web. The edition of Records of Woman is available both online and in a printed facsimile edition Nanora Sweet has compiled an online bibliography of primary and secondary materials relating to Hemans.
The novels are available in a variety of good paperback editions, listed here by title and publisher:. The Mortal Immortal is available online. McGann and D. Riess Selections from The Improvisatrice and other works are available online , and her Poetical Works and Tales and Sketches have been reprinted in facsimile editions and , respectively.
Numerous Romantic texts particularly shorter poems are available on the World Wide Web, and most of them can be downloaded and printed free of charge. One source of texts is the University of Toronto's Representative Poetry anthology.
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