Many factual errors mar the text as well.
A superior study, despite its age, is M. In June , troops from four Union member estates the Palatinate, Hessen-Kassel, Ansbach and Baden-Durlach , without consulting the others, crossed the Rhine and attacked towns in Alsace where the Hapsburg Archduke Leopold was supposedly gathering arms and building up a military force. They killed dozens, perhaps as many as a hundred people, in the act. Other Union members regarded the deed as offensive. Palatine relations with Britain were strong but complicated.
Konfession — Dynastie — Kulturelle Ausdrucksformen Stuttgart, There is no recent scholarly monograph of Elizabeth Stuart, but her letters have been published. See N. Akkerman ed. Also see M. The most complete treatment is C. Also see L. Fridrich V. Malcolm Smuts ed.
A House Divided: Wittelsbach Confessional Court Cultures in the Holy Roman Empire, c. 1550-1650
See W. Many Scots, officers and soldiers, went to war in the empire on behalf of Elizabeth Stuart. Murdoch ed. While in the United Provinces, the pair visited a Jesuit church in Emmerich and spent a night at a nunnery in Rhenen, gestures demonstrating their tolerance.
Further up the Rhine in Bonn, they met Johann Sigismund von Hohenzollern, the margrave-elector of Brandenburg, a member of the Union and the only other Calvinist elector of the empire. Nischan, Prince, People and Confession. The Second Reformation in Brandenburg Philadelphia, Frederick and Elizabeth also stopped in Worms, the main town of a miniscule bishopric, all but encircled by Palatine lands. It posed no threat, but there were tensions appropriate to the time period. Frederick complained to the bishop in about the growing number of Jesuits and their activities in or near Palatine territory.
Palatine tolerance pertained to the status quo; it did not include Catholic evangelisation. Relations with the town and bishopric of Speyer were similar: neighbourliness had been the norm for centuries, right through the Reformation. Problems about church and school attendance and processions flared up from time to time, but the elector only sent in troops in , in order to free peasants imprisoned by the bishop in a local insurrection. Schmidtchen ed. First and foremost was the kingdom of Bohemia, under the control of the Habsburg kings and Holy Roman Emperors.
To the south of the Upper Palatinate lay the duchy of Bavaria, ruled by another branch of the Wittelsbach family. Palatine relations with their Bavarian cousins were particularly fraught with dynastic and Calvinist—Catholic rivalry. Two more kingdoms lay on the periphery of the Palatine network: Denmark and France.
King Christian would take up arms in the s on behalf of the Palatines, but only after the war first came to his doorstep. In , at the age of 18, Frederick V signed his last testament, indicating his priorities for the Palatinate and the allies he thought he could trust most. In the event of his death, he named his eldest son the heir of the electorate and stipulated that it remain Calvinist.
The people of the Palatinate suffered terribly for it, while the prince lived out his days as an expensive, undesirable guest in the Netherlands. Alter ed. A Peace for the Whole World We are using cookies to provide statistics that help us give you the best experience of our site.
As the loci of authority, prestige and honour, princes were the founts of patronage and preferment, the key to advancement in state, society, scholarship and frequently the church as well. Princes usually received their authority, titles and dignity by right of inheritance and were expected to hold on to them until death. Of course theory differed from practice, given the interest and ability of each individual prince, but the expectations were clear enough. Still, no prince was as absolute as he probably would have liked. Without the consent and support of his family, dynasty, household, noblemen, servants and many other people, the prince would have been just one man among many.
Since the Habsburgs had occupied the topmost seat in the empire. The Elector Palatine in ruled over about , commoners, making the Palatine estate one of the more populous in the empire, exceeded by Bohemia and Saxony each with over one million and Bavaria with , The towns, the largest and most important being Heidelberg, hosted wine merchants, cloth workers, artisans, metalworkers and goldsmiths. The faculty was small in the early seventeenth century, with about 20 professors on average, teaching and researching in arts philosophy, logic and humanities , medicine, law and theology.
The medical faculty offered public anatomical instruction using human dissection in and perhaps earlier. In , the university opened its own press and bookstore. The ruling princes of the Palatinate used their patronage to shape and support the university for the sake of supplying their subjects with teachers, clergymen, lawyers, administrators and doctors.
But around , the elector also held the at least nominal fidelity of fief-holders along the Rhine and Neckar, in, among and beyond the range of his own estates. Many of these and other members of the lesser nobility in the region belonged to the Palatine order of knighthood. The Wittelsbach family ruled by right of birth. His loyalty to the elector in Heidelberg was unquestioned, but his distance from that court inevitably restricted his influence on its decisions.
Mainly through correspondence, Anhalt enthusiastically encouraged war between Protestants and Catholics in the empire and beyond, especially in the years following , but his plans usually came to nothing. Religion and Confessionalisation By the mid-sixteenth century, the Palatinate had instituted the Reformation: the electors closed monasteries and convents, revised doctrine and liturgy and placed the regulation of religion in the principality under the direct control of the prince and his Church Council Kirchenrat.
Each change involved replacing clergy, university professors and governing officials, distributing new books and catechisms, adjusting rites, some iconoclasm and, at times, involved popular resistance and violent protests. Success was mixed. With some ingenuity, the Palatinate can be used as an example either way. The most important, formal network was the Protestant Union, also known as the Union of Auhausen, founded by his father and his associates in Moreover, the necessarily divergent local concerns of the Union princes and cities prevented the group from becoming anything more than a defensive alliance of the last resort, if at all.
The wedding festivities were notably extravagant, and the many entertainments and literary compositions have produced great interest among scholars. Pursuing such diverse marriages sent mixed messages, but when Frederick accepted the proffered crown of Bohemia in , James condemned the move in no uncertain terms. The Elector Palatine had no official connections with any notable figures from Ireland.
Most of the Irish who came to fight in the empire did so on behalf of the Habsburgs, the Catholic League, and Poland, but 89 are known to have fought for the Palatinate and other Protestant powers. Continuing on their progress, Frederick and Elizabeth dined with the Catholic archbishop-elector of Mainz, Johann Schweikard von Kronberg, the arch-chancellor of the empire, the most influential of the three archbishop-electors in the electoral college.
Confessional differences did not prevent hospitality between neighbouring princes, but discretion kept the stay short, to one night. On the same journey, the young couple also met the archbishop-electors of Cologne and Trier. Despite differences in Christian confession, the reality of proximity and status, the fact that the Elector Palatine and the archbishop-electors were neighbours and colleagues in the empire, did not preclude basic hospitality and courtesy.
The bishop for his part pleaded self-defence, but a fortress at Udenheim could have been used by other military powers, such as those of Spain or the Catholic league. The bishop made assurances but kept on building. The bishop riposted with lawsuits. Landgrave Moritz of Hessen-Kassel, a Calvinist, tried to push Frederick and the Union to be more open and responsive to Lutherans in other parts of the empire. Landgrave Moritz had close contact with the Lutheran princes of Hessen-Darmstadt and electoral Saxony, and, perhaps out of jealousy, Moritz did not want to see the Union become a military tool to serve Palatine interests alone.
Duke Maximilian, in corresponding with his brother, the archbishop-elector of Cologne, mentioned the possibility of converting Frederick V to Catholicism, which was wildly unrealistic.
The Palatinate and its Networks in the Empire and in Europe
Pursell, The Winter King , pp. Regarding France, the francophone Palatine court had military and financial support to Henry of Navarre during the wars that ravaged France in the later sixteenth century, but when Henry became king, he quickly distanced himself from the Palatine elector. Instead, he should stay in his principality, which is quite large enough, rule well, make it prosperous, and keep it peaceful, letting go of all thoughts of acquiring new lands. One never knows, but chances are that in that case, history would have been rather different.
Brayshay, M. Forster, M. Ginzel, C. Johnson, T. Kaplan, B. Patterson, R. Pursell, B. Thomas, A. Werner, H. Smuts ed. Update Location. If you want NextDay, we can save the other items for later. Yes—Save my other items for later. No—I want to keep shopping. Order by , and we can deliver your NextDay items by. In your cart, save the other item s for later in order to get NextDay delivery.
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Pickup not available. This book examines the intersection between religious belief, dynastic ambitions, and late Renaissance court culture within the main branches of Germany's most storied ruling house, the Wittelsbach dynasty.
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